fault location
travelling waves


This paper describes how the fault generated travelling waves detected in the current signals at a single location on a distribution feeder can be used for fault location. The method identifies the fault section and the probable location of the fault by comparing the relative distance of each “peak” in the high frequency current signals to the known reflection points in the distribution feeder. The probable fault location is then used within a transient power system simulator that models the actual network. The resulting simulated current waveforms are then cross-correlated against the original signal. If the estimated fault location is correct, the high frequency signatures in the simulated waveform will be similar to those of the measured waveforms and the cross-correlation value will be a high positive value. If the signatures differ, the cross correlation value  will be negative or small. The simulation and correlation process is repeated with the next “most likely” fault location until a high degree of correlation is obtained. Simulation studies using PSCAD/EMTDC and analysis using cross-correlation suggest that this method can accurately locate a fault on a distribution feeder using measurements at a single location.    





Glover, J.D. and Sarma, M. (2001), Power System Analysis & Design, ThomsonEngineering, U.S.A., 3rd Edition.

Crossley, P.A. and MacLaren, P.G. (1983), Distance protection based on travelling waves, IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and System, vol. PAS 102, No. 9, pp. 2971-2983.

Ancell, G.B. and Pahalawaththa, N.C. (1994), Maximum likelihood estimation of fault location on transmission lines using travelling waves, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 680-689.

Jie Liang, Elangovan, S., and Devotta, J.B.X. (1999), Adaptive travelling wave protection algorithm using two correlation functions, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 14, No.1, , pp. 126-131.

Bo, Z.Q., Weller, G., and Redfern, M.A. (1999), Accurate fault location technique for distribution system using fault-generated high-frequency transient voltage signals, IEE Proceedings - Generation, Transmission and Distribution, Volume 146, Issue 1, , pp. 7379.

Crossley, P.A., Gale, P.F., and Aurangzeb, M. (2001), Fault location using high frequency travelling waves measured at a single location on a transmission line, Developments in Power System Protection, Amsterdam, Holland, 9-12 April 2001, pp. 403-406.

Elhaffar, A. and Lehtonen, M. (2004), Travelling waves based earth fault location in 400 kV transmission network using single end measurement, Large Engineering systems Conference on Power Engineering, LESCOPE-04, 28-30 July 2004, pp. 53-56.

Thomas, D.W.P., Christopoulos, C., Tang, Y., Gale, P., and Stokoe, J. (2004), Single ended travelling wave fault location scheme based on wavelet analysis, Eighth IEE International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection, Volume 1, 5-8 April 2004, pp. 196-199.

Zeng Xiangjun, Li, K.K., Liu Zhengyi, and Yin Xianggen (2004), Fault location using traveling wave for power networks, Industry Applications Conference, 2004, 39th IAS Annual Meeting, 3-7 Oct. 2004, Vol. 4, pp. 2426-2429.

Evrenosoglu, C.Y. and Abur, A. (2005), Travelling wave based fault location for teed circuits, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Volume 20, Issue 2, Part 1, April 2005 pp. 1115-1121.

Gale, P.F. and Giannattasio, B.F. (1994), Travelling waves get to the point, Modern Power Systems, pp. 45-47.

Bewley, L.V. (1951), Travelling waves on transmission systems, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.


Download data is not yet available.