Marine Phytoplankton in Port and Ship’s Ballast Water at Tanjung Priok Harbour, North Jakarta, Indonesia
AJSTD Vol 35(1-2) cover


algal bloom
community structure
jump dispersal


This research aimed to study the phytoplankton community in ships’ ballast water in comparison with the natural assemblages in the waters of Tanjung Priok Harbour in Jakarta, Indonesia. Phytoplankton samples were collected between November 2011 to October 2012 from four ports of Tanjung Priok Harbour and from discharged ballast water of randomly selected ships in the port. Skeletonema, Thalassiosira, and Chaetoceros were three predominant phytoplankton genera in all samples. Ceratium and Protoperidinium were also commonly found in high densities in most samples. An unusual phytoplankton bloom (> 109 cells m-3) was observed in the ballast water sample taken in March 2012. It was unknown whether this bloom was formed inside the tank or was already present at the source. Ballast water samples of BWD11, BWM12, and BWA12 had significantly different phytoplankton community from the natural assemblages in the harbour, which increase the risk of non-indigenous phytoplankton introduction to Tanjung Priok Harbour.


Anonymous. 2006. Informasi 25 pelabuhan strategis Indonesia: Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok. Jakarta: PT. Pelabuhan Indonesia II.

Arinardi OH. 1997. Metode penelitian plankton bahari. In: Hutagalung HP, Setiapermana D, Riyono SH, editors. Metode analisis air laut, sedimen dan biota: buku 2. Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Oseanologi LIPI. p. 143–152

Bakus GJ. 2007. Community analysis: ordination and other multivariate techniques.In: Bakus GJ, editor. Quantitative analysis of marine biological communities: field biology and environment. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 237–263.

Butron A, Orive E, Madariaga I. 2011. Potential risk of harmful algae transport by ballast waters: the case of Bilbao Harbour. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:747–757.

Carlton JT. 1985. Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 23:313–374.

Choi KH. 2009. Risk assessment of ballast water-mediated invasion of phytoplankton: a modelling study. Ocean Science Journal 44(4):221–226.

Cohen AN. 1998. Ships’ ballast water and the introduction of exotic organisms into the San Francisco estuary: current status of the problem and options for the management. Richmond: San Francisco Estuary Institute.

Couts ADM, Kirrily MM, Chad LH. 2003. Ships’ sea-chests: an overlooked transfer mechanism for nonindigenous marine species. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46(11):1510–1513.

Cox GW. 1976. Laboratory manual of general ecology 3rd edition. Iowa: W.C. Brown Company Publishing.

David M, Gollasch S, Cabrini M, Perkovic M, Bosnjak D, Virgilio D. 2007. Results from the first ballast water sampling study in the Mediterranean Sea – the Port of Koper study. Marine Pollution Bulletin (54):53–65.

Davis CC. 1955. The marine and freshwater plankton. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.
Edler L, Elbrachter M. 2010. The utermohl method for quantitative phytoplankton analysis. In: Karlson B, Cusack C, Bresnan E, editors. Microscopic and molecular methods for quantitative phytoplankton analysis. Spain: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. p. 13–15

Gollasch S. 1996. Untersuchungen des Arteintrages durch den internationalen Schi sverkehr unter besonderer Berücksichtigung nichtheimischer [dissertation]. Universitaet Hamburg. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovac.

Gollasch S, Lenz J, Dammer M, Andreas HG. 2000. Survival of tropical ballast water organisms during a cruise from the Indian Ocean to the North Sea. Journal of Plankton Research 22:923–937.

Hallegraeff GM. 1998. Transport of toxic dinoflagellates via ships’ ballast water: bioeconomic risk assessment and efficacy of possible ballast water management strategies. Marine Ecology Progress Series 168:297–309.

Hallegraeff GM, Steffensen DA, Wetherbee R. 1988. Three estuarine Australian dinoflagellates that can produce paralytic shellfish toxin. Journal of Plankton Research

Hyun B, Shin K, Jang M-C, Jang P-G, Lee W-J, Park C, Choi K-H. 2016. Potential invasions of phytoplankton in ship ballast water at South Korean ports. Marine and Freshwater Research 67:1906–1917.

[IMO] International Maritime Organization. 2008. Annex 3 Resolution MEPC.173(58): guidelines for ballast water sampling (G2). London: International Maritime Organization; [accessed 2013 Nov 25].

Klein G,Macintosh K, Kaczmarska I, Ehrman JM. 2010. Diatom survivorship in ballast water during trans-Pacific crossings. Biological Invasions 12:1031–1044.

McMinn A, Hallaegreff GM, Thomson P, Jenkinson AV, Heijnis H. 1998. Cyst and radionucleotide evidence for the recent introduction of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum into Tasmanian waters. Marine Ecology Progress Series 161:165–172.

Nontji A. 2008. Plankton laut. Jakarta: LIPI Press.

Praseno DP, Sugestiningsih. 2000. Retaid di perairan Indonesia. Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Oseanologi LIPI.

Semina HJ. 1978. Using the standard microscope: treatment of an aliquot sample. In: Sournia A, editor. Phytoplankton manual. France: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. p. 181.

Shirota A. 1966. The plankton of South Vietnam: freshwater and marine plankton. Japan: Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency.

Sidabutar T. 2010. Kondisi fitoplankton di Teluk Jakarta pada periode 2008-2009. In: Muchsin R, editor. Dinamika ekosistem perairan Kepulauan Seribu, Teluk Jakarta. Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Oseanografi Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia.

Thoha H, Adnan Q, Sidabutar T, Sugestiningsih. 2007. Note on the occurrence of phytoplankton and its relation with mass mortality in the Jakarta Bay, May and November 2004. Makara Seri Sains 11:63–67.

Thoha H. 2010. Studi variasi musiman terhadap kelimpahan fitoplankton di perairan Teluk Jakarta 2009. In: Muchsin R, editor. Dinamika ekosistem perairan Kepulauan Seribu, Teluk Jakarta. Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian Oseanografi Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia. p. 139–146.

Tomas CR. 1997. Identifying marine phytoplankton. San Diego: Academic Press.

Yamaji I. 1966. Illustrations of the marine plankton of Japan. Japan: Hoikusha.

Zhang F, Dickman M. 1999. Mid-ocean exchange of container vessel ballast water: 1. Seasonal factors affecting the transport of harmful diatoms and dinoflagellates. Marine Ecology Progress Series 176:243–251.
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Download data is not yet available.