Survey of Marine Phytoplankton in Ship’s Ballast Tanks at Laem Chabang International Port, Thailand
AJSTD Vol 35(1-2) cover


ship ballast water
marine phytoplankton


Marine phytoplankton was investigated in ballast water of ships from 2010 to 2012 with a collection of 30 marine vessels that docked at Laem Chabang International Port in Chonburi Province, Thailand. The results showed that the dominant group of phytoplankton was diatoms. The amount of phytoplankton in the ballast tanks averaged less than 10 cells/ mL, which is less than Regulation D-2 of the Ballast Water Management Convention which requires that marine organisms between the sizes of 10 ≤ X <50 µm should be less than 10 cells/mL and size ≥ 50 µm should be less than 10 cell/m3 in ballast water. Alien species of phytoplankton was not recorded in this survey.


Carlton JT. 1985. Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 23:313–371.

Carlton JT, Geller JB. 1993. Ecological roulette: the global transport of non-indigenous marine organisms. Science 261:78–82.

Fukuyo Y, Takano H, Chihara M, Matsuoka K. 1990. Red tide organisms in Japan – an illustrated taxonomic guide. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakoho.

Fukuyo Y, Ikegami T, Murase T. 1995. Unwanted aquatic organisms in ballast tank. Report of the ballast water treatment by using main engine water cooling circuit and findings of the on-board research. ICES Annual Science Conference; 1995 Sep 21–29; Aalborg, Denmark. p. 1–12.

Gollasch S, Lenz J, Dammer M, Andres HG. 2000. Survival of tropical ballast water organisms during a cruise from the Indian Ocean to the North Sea. Journal of Plankton Research 22:923–937.

Hallegraeff GM. 1998. Transport of toxic dinoflagellates via ship’s ballast water: bioeconomic risk assessment and efficacy of ballast water management strategies. Marine Ecology Progress Series 168:297–309.

[IMO] International Maritime Organisation. 1995. Unwanted aquatic organisms in ballast water. Proposed draft regulations for the control and management of ship’s ballast water to minimize the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens. London: International Maritime Organisation. p. 1–9.

[IMO] International Maritime Organisation. 2009. Ballast water management convention and the guidelines for its implementation. London: International Maritime Organisation. p. 234.

[IMO] International Maritime Organisation. 2014. Ballast water management. London: International Maritime Organisation; [accessed 2014 Sep 2]. /ourwork/environment/ballastwatermanagement/pages/default.aspx.

Medcof JC. 1975. Living marine animals in a ship’s ballast water. Proceedings of the National Shellfish Association 65:54–55.

Olenina I, Wasmund N, Hajdu S, Jurgensone I, Gromisz S, Kownacka J, Toming K, Vaiciute D, Olenin S. 2010. Assessing impacts of invasive phytoplankton: the Baltic Sea case. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:1691–1700.

Ruiz GM, Murphy KR, Verling E, Smith G, Chaves S, Hines AH. 2005. Ballast water exchange: efficacy of treating ships’ ballast water to reduce marine species transfers and invasion success? Edgewater: Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. p. 1–17.

Smith DL. 1977. A guide to marine coastal plankton and marine invertebrate larvae. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

Tomas CR. 1996. Identifying marine diatoms and dinoflagellates. San Diego: Academic Press.

Streftaris N, Zenetos A. 2006. Alien marine species in the Mediterranean – the 100 ‘worst invasives’ and their impact. Mediterranean Marine Science 7(1):87–188.

Wongratana L. 2001. Phytoplankton. 2nd ed. Bangkok: Kasetsart University Publisher.

Wongratana L, Boonyapiwat S. 2003. Guideline for collected and identified plankton. Bangkok: Kasetsart University Publisher.
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Download data is not yet available.