ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development 2018-09-22T02:13:33+07:00 Widodo Open Journal Systems <h2>About the <em>ASEAN Journal on Science &amp; Technology for Development</em></h2> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">Jointly published by the ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology and the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia, the <em>ASEAN Journal on Science &amp; Technology for Development</em> (print ISSN 0217-5460; online ISSN 2224-9028) is a peer-reviewed open access journal focusing on the publication of articles that make positive, tangible contributions to science and technology in the ASEAN region. Its main aim is to promote and accelerate the discovery and ultimate ASEAN-wide application of scientific and technological innovations, the consequence of which should be greater prosperity for the people of Southeast Asia.</p> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">AJSTD covers a wide range of technology-related subjects in the context of ASEAN, including biotechnology, non-conventional energy research, materials science and technology, marine sciences, meteorology and geophysics, food science and technology, microelectronics and information technology, space applications, science and technology policy, and infrastructure and resources development.</p> <h2>About The ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology</h2> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">The ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology was established to strengthen and enhance the capability of ASEAN in science and technology so that it can promote economic development and help achieve a high quality of life for its people. Its terms and reference are:</p> <ul class="asean-terms" style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;"> <li class="show">To generate and promote development of scientific and technological expertise and manpower in the ASEAN region;</li> <li class="show">To facilite and accelerate the transfer of scientific and technological development among ASEAN countries and from more advanced regions of the world to the ASEAN region;</li> <li class="show">To provide support and assistance in the development and application of research discoveries and technological practices of endogenous origin for the common good, and in the more effective use of natural resources available in the ASEAN region and in general; and</li> <li class="show">To provide scientific and technological support towards the implementation of existing and future ASEAN projects.</li> </ul> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">Further information about the activities of ASEAN COST can be <a class="border-hover" href=";view=categories&amp;id=8&amp;Itemid=130" target="_blank" rel="noopener">found on its website</a>.</p> ASEAN-India Cooperation Project on ‘Extent of Transfer of Alien Invasive Organisms in South/Southeast Asia Region by Shipping’ 2018-09-19T07:25:59+07:00 Arga Chandrasekar Anil Koh Siang Tan <p>A brief background of events leading to the successful implementation of the first&nbsp;ASEAN-India project on marine sciences is provided. Coordinated by India and Singapore, the project,&nbsp;entitled ‘Extent of transfer of alien invasive organisms in South/Southeast Asia region by&nbsp;shipping’ served to develop regional cooperation and networks to address the issue of alien invasive&nbsp;organisms, provide training for ASEAN scientists, as well as obtain baseline information on pest&nbsp;species for port management in the light of IMO’s Ballast Water Management Convention. The project&nbsp;was completed with an international workshop held in Chiangmai, Thailand where some 29&nbsp;presentations were made by ASEAN and Indian scientists based on the project activities. A total of&nbsp;23 original articles are included in this volume. A proposal to implement a second phase of the&nbsp;project was formally submitted to the ASEAN-India Cooperation Fund in 2016.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ballast Water Control and Management in Brunei Darussalam 2018-09-18T17:26:03+07:00 Hjh Zuliza Hj Jolkifli Ranimah H.A Wahab <p>The ongoing transfer of non-indigenous organisms through shipping, especially via ballast water transport, is placing marine and coastal resources under increased threat. The transport of Invasive Alien Species (IAS) is a critical issue which may cause irreversible consequences to receiving environments and economies needing particular attention. The main objective of this paper is to highlight the importance for implementation of ballast water management measures in Brunei Darussalam. This paper recognised IAS intrusion via ballast water has high probability to have direct effects on the economic value of fisheries sector, thus the need for an effective ballast water management strategy. Management of ballast water is a complex issue and horizontal policy is the appropriate approach for building this management framework in addition to valid baseline and efficient monitoring. Further studies such as development risk assessment model and assessment of different management measures are critical for an effective prevention, eradication and control strategy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Plate Settlement: Determination of Fouling Organisms in Brunei 2018-09-18T17:31:02+07:00 Hjh Zuliza Hj Jolkifli Ranimah H.A Wahab <p>Shipping is considered a primary vector of biological invasion. Hull fouling is recognized as one of the common vectors involved in the translocation of marine pests that may have deleterious impacts to ecology and economy. In an effort to understand the fouling communities within Brunei waters and as an early attempt to obtain baseline data, PVC plates were deployed at a depth of 1 meter, checked for taxa composition and replaced with new plates monthly and quarterly over a period of one year. The Caribbean bivalve <em>Mytilopsis sallei</em> was absent throughout the period of study, and plates were mainly colonized by native fouling species and silt. Nevertheless, further verification on the absence of Invasive Alien Species (IAS) is still required. This study summarizes the improved methods of analysis for better control and management in order to impede the incursion or invasion of undesirable species.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ship-mediated Marine Bioinvasions: Need for a Comprehensive Global Action Plan 2018-09-18T17:44:30+07:00 Arga Chandrasekar Anil Venkat Krishnamurthy <p>Concern for marine bioinvasion has drawn international attention. The action plans in place to address this issue and those that are being promulgated are in need of a reassessment. A review of invertebrate invasions across the world indicates inter-linkages between vectors. In this paper an effort is made to illustrate the geographical spread of invasive invertebrate organisms from different bioregions and the possible causes for their success. Shipping, which is the major vector identified for the success of marine bioinvasion, needs to be addressed in tandem with domestic, intra- and inter-regional precautionary measures, as prevention is the only cure.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ballast Water Risk Assessment: the Indian experience 2018-09-18T21:03:39+07:00 Venkat Krishnamrthy Subhash Sawant Arga Chandrashekar Anil <p>The Ballast Water Risk Assessment serves as a “Decision Support System” for any given port to take appropriate ballast water management actions. Risk assessment involves collation of data from the ballast water reporting forms to identify the source of ballast water. The environmental characteristics of the source and recipient ports are utilized to evaluate the similarities. This is then combined with other risk factors, including voyage duration and risk species to gain a preliminary indication of the overall risk posed by each source port. The results will help in evaluating the risk posed by ballast water introductions, and decide whether to apply a blanket or selective ballast water management regime. The experience in India with ballast water risk assessment showed that manually submitted ballast water reporting forms were ridden with inaccuracies. Self-validating electronic ballast water reporting forms (e-BWRF) were introduced to overcome such inaccuracies. Our experience with the risk assessment conducted in an Indian port Visakhapatnam, suggests that the local ports pose higher risk of introduction. However, under such circumstances a risk reduction factor was introduced in the method to counter geographical proximities. The paper provides lessons learnt through ballast water risk assessment and the necessary corrective actions taken thereof.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Numerical Modelling of Ballast Water Dispersion in Different Bioregions along the Coast of India 2018-09-18T21:07:35+07:00 M.T. Babu K Sudheesh P Vethamony S Anuvindha <p>Aquatic organisms and pathogens may become major threats to the coastal and marine environment when introduced into a region beyond their natural distributions through ballast water (BW). Coastal currents induced by tides and winds, especially ebb currents, may facilitate the spread of these marine organisms along nearshore and inshore areas. Numerical modelling of hydrodynamics is an effective tool to track the dispersion of these organisms in the receiving water body through BW release. Particle transport models can be used to track the advection and dispersion of these organisms. Alternatively, the difference in salinity of the BW and coastal waters can be used as a tracer to estimate the dispersion pattern. Tides and winds present in the region at the time of BW release are responsible for the dispersal of the particles present in BW discharge. Based on advection and dispersion processes, the transport of the marine organisms present in the BW can be studied using numerical models. Numerical modelling studies were carried out using the 2-D hydrodynamic model MIKE21 HD, to understand the pattern of BW dispersion at select bioregions along the east and west coasts of India. Mangalore Port located along the west coast in Bioregion-I (CIO-I) and Chennai Port on the east coast in Bioregion-II (CIO-II) were selected for the modelling study. Results obtained from ballast water dispersion modelling studies will be useful for developing and assisting port-based ballast water management programmes for CIO-I and CIO-II regions. The currents are predominantly tide driven near the ports situated along the west coast and the circulation exhibited reversals associated with the tidal currents. However, along the east coast of India, the particles largely followed coastal currents - advected either southward or northward under the influence of prevailing coastal currents in the offshore region and tidal reversals showed had less impact. This information proved useful for determining suitable locations for BW discharge and monitoring points for field sampling in connection with BW release.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biofouling Community Structure in a Tropical Estuary of Goa on the West Coast of India 2018-09-20T14:45:16+07:00 Dattesh V Desai Venkat Krishnamurthy Arga Chandrashekar Anil <p>Biofouling community structure was studied in a tropical monsoon-influenced Mandovi estuary in Goa, west coast of India. Monthly, seasonal and yearly observations on biofouling on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) panels immersed at subsurface water level were recorded and photographed from May 2012 to September 2013. The barnacle <em>Balanus amphitrite</em> was the dominant fouling organism followed by calcareous polychaetes. The settlement and recruitment of barnacles took place year-round, with the exception of July 2012 and June 2013 (monsoon months). However, their peak abundance was observed during the later months of monsoon (August and September). Polychaetes were dominant during late post-monsoon and pre-monsoon months (December 2012 to April 2013). Silt and slime were observed throughout the observation period. Comparing the fouling pressure of barnacles in the two monsoon seasons (2012 and 2013), fouling was more intense during the monsoon of 2013, indicating an inter-annual variation in the fouling community.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Marine Macroalgae: Prospective Hitchhikers of Ship Ballast 2018-09-20T01:24:38+07:00 Temjensangba Imchen <p>Invasive alien species, on successful establishment, can displace native species. The threat of invasive species arises in view of their ability to outcompete and destabilize native biodiversity. Invasive species are found across all taxonomic groups of plants, animals and&nbsp;microorganisms. The green macroalga Ulva flexuosa has a potential to become invasive and this species was investigated for its hitchhiking potential under laboratory conditions. Zoospores of U. flexuosa were maintained at 4°C for nearly 10 months in the dark. Recruitment potential of zoospores after dark stress was tested in a modified Provasoli medium under optimal laboratory<br>conditions. The success rate of zoospore recruitment was 61%. The paper describes the transfer potential through shipping activities by correlating the Ulva zoospores recruitment potential and survivability.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Role of Reporting in Compliance Monitoring and Enforcement of Ballast Water Management 2018-09-20T07:33:37+07:00 Kaushal E. Mapari Venkat Krishnamurty Arga Chandrashekar Anil <p>The Decision Support System (DSS) for ballast water management in any given port is dependent on the availability of information on ballast water carried by a ship in advance. Collation of information through Ballast Water Reporting Forms (BWRF) has been adopted by several countries. This paper provides a comparison of the reporting forms adopted by some of the countries and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) recommended BWRF. The manually submitted reporting forms have several limitations and India has developed a self-validating Electronic Ballast Water Reporting Form (e-BWRF) to overcome such issues. In addition, the possible direction for reporting in the future is also presented.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Recent Trends of Demersal Marine Fish and Invertebrate Production in Southeast Asia – A Hypothesis-based Analysis 2018-09-20T07:41:07+07:00 Vinay P. Padate Chandrashekher U. Rivonker <p>Demersal marine fish and invertebrate production data for Southeast Asia (1996–2007) obtained from the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) statistical bulletin indicated a reduced production by Thailand largely due to over-exploitation and altered coastal ecosystems. In contrast, increased production by Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia was due to an increase in mechanised fishing fleets. Moreover, marginal increases in the ecosystem indicators were attributed to increased exploitation of high and mid trophic level organisms suggesting the development of “top-down” cascade effect in the future. In this bioregion, land use pattern affecting water quality coupled with altered monsoonal sequences and rising sea surface temperatures interfere with biological processes. The most apparent manifestations of these disturbances are recurrences of extensive algal blooms and coral bleaching events. Fish mortality as a result of these events threatens to weaken the native biota and facilitate invasions that would modify the trophic dynamics of the coastal habitats.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Industrial Seawater Cooling Systems under Threat from the Invasive Green Mussel Perna viridis 2018-09-20T07:47:52+07:00 Vayalam P. Venugopalan <p>The green mussel Perna viridis, native to the Asia-Pacific region, has been introduced to other regions such as the Caribbean, Japan and North and South America. It is a large, commercially important species, widely cultivated and harvested in Southeast Asia, but is also considered an invasive species elsewhere, capable of replacing native species. As a fouling organism in intake systems of coastal power plants, it causes flow blockage and loss of cooling efficiency. Mussel colonization during peak settlement season can exceed 35,000 individuals/m2 and biomass can exceed 100 kg/m2. They can withstand wide fluctuations in temperature and salinity. Previous work has shown that a conventional biofouling control measure such as chlorination is not very effective against these bivalves, unless applied continuously for extended periods of time. We require more efficient, environmentally compatible methods of biofouling control. The paper discusses these issues in the context of the perceived invasion potential of P. viridis.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Marine Phytoplankton in Port and Ship’s Ballast Water at Tanjung Priok Harbour, North Jakarta, Indonesia 2018-09-22T00:35:03+07:00 Hikmah Thoha Arief Rachman <p style="text-align: justify;">This research aimed to study the phytoplankton community in ships’ ballast water in comparison with the natural assemblages in the waters of Tanjung Priok Harbour in Jakarta, Indonesia. Phytoplankton samples were collected between November 2011 to October 2012 from four ports of Tanjung Priok Harbour and from discharged ballast water of randomly selected ships in the port. <em>Skeletonema</em>, <em>Thalassiosira</em>, and <em>Chaetoceros</em> were three predominant phytoplankton genera in all samples. <em>Ceratium</em> and <em>Protoperidinium</em> were also commonly found in high densities in most samples. An unusual phytoplankton bloom (&gt; 10<sup>9</sup> cells m<sup>-3</sup>) was observed in the ballast water sample taken in March 2012. It was unknown whether this bloom was formed inside the tank or was already present at the source. Ballast water samples of BWD11, BWM12, and BWA12 had significantly different phytoplankton community from the natural assemblages in the harbour, which increase the risk of non-indigenous phytoplankton introduction to Tanjung Priok Harbour.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fouling Polychaetes in Tanjung Priok Port of Jakarta, Indonesia 2018-09-22T01:55:03+07:00 Hadiyanto Hadiyanto <p>Fouling polychaetes in Tanjung Priok Port, Jakarta and their status were studied in order to update the list of marine alien species in Indonesia. Polychaetes were collected using six PVC panels that were submerged at a depth of 0.5 m over three months in Jakarta Bay. Polychaetes were identified to the lowest taxon possible based on characteristics of external morphology. The geographical distribution of identified polychaetes was then determined based on taxonomic literature in order to justify whether they were native or alien species for Indonesian waters. Twelve fouling polychaetes belonging to nine families are reported here. Of these, nine species (<em>i.e., Chrysopetalum </em>debilis<em>, Eunice </em>hirschi<em>, Ceratonereis mirabilis, Leonnates </em>decipiens<em>, Polyophthalmus </em>pictus<em>, Eulalia (Eumida) </em>sanguinea<em>, Lepidonotus </em>tenuisetosus<em>, Hydroides </em>elegans<em>, and Polydora </em>ciliata) were native species, while three other taxa <em>(i.e., Namanereis sp., Hypsicomus sp. 1, and Hypsicomus sp. 2</em>) were undetermined.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Composition of Ballast Water from Ships Arriving at Kertih Port, Malaysia with Observations on Port and Offshore Waters, and Notes on Settlement Patterns of Fouling Organisms 2018-09-22T02:00:03+07:00 Lee Siang Hing Kesaven Bhubalan Peck Ying Tan Rohaida Mat Husain <p style="text-align: justify;">We investigated plankton composition and water quality of ballast water from seven international ships docked at Kertih Port, Malaysia. Coscinodiscophyceae and cyanobacteria were the dominant phytoplankton found in ballast water samples, whereas copepod nauplii, <em>Oithona</em> sp., <em>Microstella</em> sp. and <em>Paracalanus</em> sp. were the dominant zooplankton. The densities for both phytoplankton and zooplankton in ships’ ballast and port waters were higher than those of offshore samples. All water quality parameters (except Cr) of port samples were within the safety levels prescribed for ports, oil and gas fields (Class 3) by the Malaysia Marine Water Quality Criteria Standard. The study of fouling organisms using PVC panels revealed that brown algae covered 87–95% of the panels’ surface area but they were subsequently succeeded by barnacles, bivalves and red encrusting algae. Barnacle recruitment, however, was greatly influenced by crab predation which left behind a high percentage cover of barnacle bases as calcareous deposits on panels.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Marine Fouling Panel Survey and Assessment of Marine Alien Invasive Species in Myanmar 2018-09-22T02:06:18+07:00 Myint Myint Khaing <p style="text-align: justify;">A survey on fouling using PVC panels was carried out for a period of one year in Yangon River. Additional observations on fouling of man-made structures elsewhere in Myanmar were also made in an effort to find marine alien invasive species. The Myanmar ports at Yangon, Sittway and Myeik have a long history of overseas trading with Europe since the 17th century. In addition, though the Yangon port and jetties are located upstream some 12 miles from the mouth of Yangon River, it experiences regular tidal action with seasonal brackish water conditions. Its catchment area is only 100 miles from the mouth and hence the river and its tributaries are short and small. Moreover, there are several weirs and small dams on the tributaries, which result in reduced sediment influx at the mouth and thus less turbidity. Therefore, the physiochemical conditions at Yangon port may not pose a limitation on the distribution of nuisance species that are able to survive brackish water conditions. Elsewhere, Sittway port at the mouth of the Kispanadi River also experiences regular tidal action and is directly connected to the Bay of Bengal, conditions which are favourable for the intrusion of marine nuisance species. Myeik port is located along the open shore of the Myeik, which is located near the Myeik Archipelago. The waters around the archipelago are clear and the shelf is characterized by high biodiversity. Therefore, the environment also appears to be highly favourable for alien invasive species. However, these ports have no record of the occurrence of alien invasive species in particular the Caribbean bivalve <em>Mytilopsis </em>sallei.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytoplankton and Bacterial Communities in South Harbour, Manila Bay, Philippines 2018-09-22T02:09:39+07:00 Rhodora V Azanza Nero M Austero Jenelle Clarisse R. Dungca Frenchly Joyce O. Caspe Lidita Khandeparker <p style="text-align: justify;">In line with the ASEAN-India project “Extent of Transfer of Alien Invasive Organisms in&nbsp;South/Southeast Asia via Shipping”, phytoplankton and bacterial communities in the waters off&nbsp;South Harbour, Manila Bay were investigated. Sampling was done in July and August 2012 and in&nbsp;April and May 2013. A total of 67 phytoplankton species including 29 diatoms and 38 dinoflagellates&nbsp;were identified. Potentially toxic <em>Pseudo-</em>nitzschia spp. were among the diatoms found as well as&nbsp;dinoflagellates <em>Alexandrium</em> spp., and <em>Gymnodinium</em> spp. The diatom<em> Skeletonema </em>costatum<em>&nbsp;</em>appeared to be the dominant species in July and August 2012, whereas Chaetoceros spp.&nbsp;constituted over 85% of the total phytoplankton assemblage in April and May 2013. Mean bacterial<br>abundance ranged from 9.53 x 102–3.18 x 105 cells/mL in July 2012. In addition, 93 bacterial isolates&nbsp;were&nbsp; identified using 16S rDNA, several of which belonged to the following phyla: Actinobacteria,&nbsp;Bacteriodetes,&nbsp; Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria; whereas, others were determined as uncultured&nbsp;bacterial clones. These results will serve as a valuable baseline for future studies on phytoplankton&nbsp;and bacterial community structure in Manila Bay.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Marine Biofouling Communities of Manila South Harbor, Philippines 2018-09-22T02:11:57+07:00 Hildie M.E Nacorda Nero M Austero Cesar R Pagdilao Koh Siang Tan Rhodora V Azanza <p style="text-align: justify;">An immersion experiment was conducted in the Manila South Harbor to document the development of sessile biofouling communities. Test panels were submerged below the sea surface in April 2012 for short- (one and three months) and long-term (one year) exposures in seawater, then foauling types and occurrences were scored based on digital images of panel surfaces. The short-term immersed panels were found with significant cover of soft fouling (undet.), slime, and the invasive Balanus <em>(=Amphibalanus)</em> <em>amphitrite</em>. These also filled the long-term immersed panels, although some fell off due to mortality from crude oil smothering. Perna viridis, native but also invasive, successfully established and then dominated the fouling cover by the 12th month (April 2013). Oysters, bryozoans (<em>Watersipora</em> sp.), colonial tunicates, polychaetes (<em>Hydroides</em> sp.), and green algae contributed minor to fouling cover. These fouling communities in the Manila South Harbor consisted of organisms that were cosmopolitan in port waters of SE Asia. A similar study must be carried out in other major ports of the country and then compared.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Challenges in Managing Marine Bio-invasions via Shipping in Singapore 2018-09-22T02:13:33+07:00 Lim Chin Sing Koh Siang Tan <p style="text-align: justify;">The economic, social and environmental impacts arising from the transfer and establishment of non indigenous marine species (NIMS) mediated through ship hull biofouling and ballast water discharges in the coastal marine environment require a regional approach to manage bio-invasions. As the coordinating body for maritime shipping affairs and protection of the marine environment, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has been working with member states to adopt and ratify global conventions aimed at preventing invasive species transfer through shipping. As a major shipping hub and port-of-call in Southeast Asia, Singapore faces multiple challenges in managing marine bio-invasions including managing the transit of high risk vessels to environmentally sensitive areas beyond national borders. In this article, global frameworks for managing bio-invasions and its challenges for marine invasive pest management are discussed.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The invasive Caribbean Mytilopsis sallei (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae): A short review 2018-09-19T08:05:04+07:00 Koh Siang Tan Teresa Tay <p>The mussel-like bivalve species from the Caribbean, <em>Mytilopsis sallei</em>, is now well established in the vicinities of several ports in South and Southeast Asia. Although it may not be as notorious as its relative the zebra mussel <em>Dreissena polymorpha</em>, this brackish-water bivalve has the ability to colonise and displace native species in intertidal and subtidal habitats. It is also another testament to how well a tropical species can travel beyond its natural biogeographical boundaries. Here we briefly review its taxonomy, morphology, growth and reproduction, habitat and distribution, as well as its impact on natural habitats after invasion, based on published literature.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Survey of Marine Phytoplankton in Ship’s Ballast Tanks at Laem Chabang International Port, Thailand 2018-09-19T08:07:30+07:00 Sumana Kajonwattanakul Waranya Numnual Thanyapas Sirichaiseth Tanet Wannarangsri <p>Marine phytoplankton was investigated in ballast water of ships from 2010 to 2012 with a collection of 30 marine vessels that docked at Laem Chabang International Port in Chonburi Province, Thailand. The results showed that the dominant group of phytoplankton was diatoms. The amount of phytoplankton in the ballast tanks averaged less than 10 cells/ mL, which is less than Regulation D-2 of the Ballast Water Management Convention which requires that marine organisms between the sizes of 10 ≤ X &lt;50 µm should be less than 10 cells/mL and size ≥ 50 µm should be less than 10 cell/m<sup>3</sup> in ballast water. Alien species of phytoplankton was not recorded in this survey.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Survey of Fouling Organisms at Songkhla Port in Thailand 2018-09-19T08:35:45+07:00 Ratchanee Phuttapreecha Sumana Kajonwattanakul Phatcharin Songkai Chaovadee Choamanee <p>The fouling organisms at Songkhla Port were investigated from November 2011 to December 2012. Samples were collected using PVC panels (10 cm x 20 cm) submerged for one-month and three-month periods. Analysis of fouling panels was carried out using PhotoGrid software. In addition to slime and silt, three types of fouling organisms, namely encrusting bryozoa, barnacles and calcareous polychaetes, were observed on the submerged PVC panels. Calcareous polychaetes and molluscs were the most diverse groups (ten species) on panels that were submerged for one-month and three-month periods. Barnacles (<em>Balanus </em>spp.) were most abundant on panels submerged for three-month periods, while calcareous polychaetes dominated one-month panels. The dominant species of mollusc was the mussel <em>Brachidontes</em> sp. The major polychaetes identified were <em>Ficopomatus</em> <em>macrodon</em>, <em>F.</em> <em>enigmaticus</em> and <em>Hydroides</em> <em>norvegicus</em>. A highlight of this study was the first record of the Caribbean tubeworm <em>Hydroides sanctaecrucis</em> in Thailand, which has previously invaded and established in Australian waters through hull fouling.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Simulation of Ballast Water Dispersion in the Gulf of Tonkin and Offshore Waters of Hai Phong Port, Vietnam 2018-09-19T08:12:30+07:00 Hoang Mai Le Cong Minh Nguyen Thanh Ca Vu Thanh Thuy Tran Van Dien Nguyen Huy Ram Dang <p>Transfer of invasive alien organisms and their negative impacts have been recorded around the world. It is estimated that approximately 7,000 species of marine creatures are silently moved around the world by ballast water every hour. Recently, discharge of ballast water in the coastal area has become a serious concern. The movement of discharged ballast water and accompanying alien organisms largely depends on the preveiling hydrodynamics of the receiving water body. Dynamics simulation models for marine environment provide sound prediction of dispersion of ballast water. The study was undertaken in the seas of the Gulf of Tonkin and in the offshore area of Hai Phong Port using the MIKE 21 model – a two-dimensional hydrodynamics model. The yearly-mean wind field was used in the model to generate the circulation. Ballast water discharged to the three sites in the study area was simulated by using dispersal-advection model. The outputs showed that ballast water discharged near the coast tends to move along the coastline. Ballast water discharged at 200 NM seaward from the coast is still able to influence the coastal zone of Vietnam.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Application of Fluorescence in situ hybridization-Flow cytometry (FISH-FCM) technique to detect and quantify Vibrio cholerae population from different geographic regions 2018-09-19T08:15:50+07:00 Lidita Khandeparker Dattesh V. Desai Arga Chandrashekar Anil S. S. Sawant K. Venkat Kaushal Mapari Zuliza Jolkifli Noorizan Abd. Karim Hikmah Thoha Hadiyanto Hadiyanto Soukaseum Dalasane Kongngeun Chounlamountry Myint Myint Khaing Jenelle Clarisse Dungca Rhodora Azanza Chin Sing Lim Koh Siang Tan Sumana Kajonwattanakul Ratchanee Phuttapreecha Hoang Mai Le <p>Rapid and species-specific detection, and quantification of pathogenic bacteria are fundamental for monitoring and assessment of the risk they pose to any ecosystem. The study employed <em>Vibrio cholerae</em>, a human pathogen responsible for the life-threatening diarrhoeal disease, cholera and one among the most unwanted from marine bioinvasion point of view. The present study coupled fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, a powerful tool in molecular phylogenetic discrimination, with flow cytometry (FCM), a technique used for rapid and accurate quantification of both viable but non-cultivable and non-viable microorganisms. The FISH-FCM technique was used for the first time to quantify <em>V. cholerae</em> (includes cultivable and non-cultivable) from different geographic regions of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) and India (Goa, west coast of India). The data acquired from the analyses provides a snap shot view of the total bacterial abundance with special reference to <em>V. cholerae</em>. As the method developed, it was evaluated with bacterial samples collected from different sites in Southeast Asia and India, and the application of this technique to different geographical regions appears feasible. Considering that the continuous growth of the shipping industry and ballast water as one of the primary vectors responsible for the global transport of pathogenic microorganisms, the risk they present needs immediate attention. This technique will be useful in the quick and accurate detection of specific pathogens. It may also provide significant insights to quarantine measures for Ballast Water Management.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An inter-site study of biofouling recruitment on static immersion panels in major ports of South East Asia and India 2018-09-19T08:18:13+07:00 Chin Sing Lim Zuliza Haji Jolkifli Alina Jair Noorizan Karim Ranimah A. Wahab Dattesh V. Desai Venkat Krishnamurthy Lidita Khandeparker Kaushal Mapari Subhash Sawant Hikmah Thoha Hadiyanto Hadiyanto Dirhamsyah Dirhamsyah Soukaseum Dalasane Kongneun Chounlamountry Lee Siang Hing Shahruddin bin H. Yusof Myint Myint Khaing Hildie M. E. Nacorda Nero Austero Rhodora V. Azanza Cesario Pagdilao Sumana Kajonwattanakul Ratchanee Puttapreecha Sombat Poovachiranon Hoang Mai Le Thanh Thuy Tran Van Cu Nguyen Koh Siang Tan Arga Chandrashekar Anil <p>Limited knowledge of native marine biodiversity hinders effective biodiversity management to safeguard South and Southeast Asia’s marine coastal environment against the threat of invasive species transfer through shipping. In particular, sessile marine biofouling organisms in South East Asian ports are poorly known. Through the support of the ASEAN-India Cooperation Project on the <em>Extent of Transfer of Alien Invasive Organisms in South/South East Asia Region by Shipping</em>, a coordinated effort to examine diversity of biofouling organisms in major port areas in Southeast Asia and India was made using polyvinylchloride (PVC) panels as recruitment surfaces in a static immersion study for a period of 12 months. Not surprisingly, the study revealed that fouling patterns differed between ports possibly as a result of dissimilar hydrographic conditions. However, there were&nbsp;also underlying similarities that reflected&nbsp;a regional uniformity in the composition of fouling communities. At the same time, the alien Caribbean bivalve <em>Mytilopsis sallei</em> was detected in Manila Bay (Philippines), Songkhla Port (Thailand) and Singapore. This is a first simultaneous biofouling survey involving scientists and government stakeholders from India and ASEAN nations of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines and Vietnam.</p> 2018-09-15T00:00:00+07:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##