ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development <h2>About the <em>ASEAN Journal on Science &amp; Technology for Development</em></h2> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">Jointly published by the ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology and the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia, the <em>ASEAN Journal on Science &amp; Technology for Development</em> (print ISSN 0217-5460; online ISSN 2224-9028) is a peer-reviewed open access journal focusing on the publication of articles that make positive, tangible contributions to science and technology in the ASEAN region. Its main aim is to promote andGoogle Scholar, ID Scopus, ResearchGate, Orcid), accelerate the discovery and ultimate ASEAN-wide application of scientific and technological innovations, the consequence of which should be greater prosperity for the people of Southeast Asia.</p> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">AJSTD covers a wide range of technology-related subjects in the context of ASEAN, including biotechnology, non-conventional energy research, materials science and technology, marine sciences, meteorology and geophysics, food science and technology, microelectronics and information technology, space applications, science and technology policy, and infrastructure and resources development.</p> <h2>About The ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology</h2> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">The ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology was established to strengthen and enhance the capability of ASEAN in science and technology so that it can promote economic development and help achieve a high quality of life for its people. Its terms and reference are:</p> <ul class="asean-terms" style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;"> <li class="show">To generate and promote development of scientific and technological expertise and manpower in the ASEAN region;</li> <li class="show">To facilite and accelerate the transfer of scientific and technological development among ASEAN countries and from more advanced regions of the world to the ASEAN region;</li> <li class="show">To provide support and assistance in the development and application of research discoveries and technological practices of endogenous origin for the common good, and in the more effective use of natural resources available in the ASEAN region and in general; and</li> <li class="show">To provide scientific and technological support towards the implementation of existing and future ASEAN projects.</li> </ul> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">Further information about the activities of ASEAN COST can be <a class="border-hover" href=";view=categories&amp;id=8&amp;Itemid=130" target="_blank" rel="noopener">found on its website</a>.</p> Universitas Gadjah Mada en-US ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development 0217-5460 <ul class="asean-terms" style="font-size: 16px;"> <li class="show">Articles published in AJSTD are licensed under a <a title="CC BY SA" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International</a> license. You are free to copy, transform, or redistribute articles for any lawful purpose in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and AJSTD, link to the license, indicate if changes were made, and redistribute any derivative work under the same license.</li> <li class="show">Copyright on articles is retained by the respective author(s), without restrictions. A non-exclusive license is granted to AJSTD to publish the article and identify itself as its original publisher, along with the commercial right to include the article in a hardcopy issue for sale to libraries and individuals.</li> <li class="show">By publishing in AJSTD, authors grant any third party the right to use their article to the extent provided by the <a title="CC BY SA" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International</a> license.</li> </ul> Conceptual Shield Design for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Facility Using Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended Simulator with Kartini Research Reactor as Neutron Source <p>The research aims to measure the radiation dose rate over the radiation shielding which is made of paraffin and aluminium and to determine the best shield material for the safety of radiation workers. The examination used MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) simulator to model the BNCT neutron source and the shield. The shield should reduce radiation to less than the dose limit of 10.42 µSv/h, which is assumed to be the most conservative limit when the duration of workers is 1920 h. The first design resulted in a radiation dose rate which was still greater than the limit. Therefore, optimization was done by adding the lead on the outer part of the shield. After optimization by adding the lead with certain layers, the radiation dose rate decreased, with the largest dose being 57.60 µSv/h. Some locations over the limit could be overcome by other radiation protection aspects such as distance and time. The paraffin blocks were covered by aluminium to keep the shield structure. The lead was used to absorb the gamma ray which resulted from the interaction between the neutrons and aluminium.</p> Afifah Hana Tsurayya Azzam Zukhrofani Iman R. Yosi Aprian Sari Arief Fauzi Gede Sutresna Wijaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 177 181 10.29037/ajstd.532 Beam Shaping Assembly Optimization for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Facility Based on Cyclotron 30 MeV as Neutron Source <p>A design of beam shaping assembly (BSA) installed on cyclotron 30 MeV model neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been optimized using simulator software of Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended (MCNPX). The Beryllium target with thickness of 0.55 cm is simulated to be bombarded with 30 MeV of proton beam. In this design, the parameter regarding beam characteristics for BNCT treatment has been improved, which is ratio of fast neutron dose and epithermal neutron flux. TiF<sub>3</sub> is replaced to 30 cm of <sup>27</sup>Al as moderator, and 1.5 cm of <sup>32</sup>S is combined with 28 cm of <sup>60</sup>Ni as neutron filter. Eventually, this design produces epithermal neutron flux of 2.33 × 10<sup>9</sup>, ratio between fast neutron dose and epithermal neutron flux of 2.12 × 10<sup>-13</sup>,ratio between gamma dose and epithermal neutron flux of 1.00 × 10<sup>-13</sup>, ratio between thermal neutron flux and epithermal neutron flux is 0.047, and ration between particle current and total neutron flux is 0.56.</p> Arief Fauzi Afifah Hana Tsurayya Ahmad Faisal Harish Gede Sutresna Wijaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 183 186 10.29037/ajstd.536 Dose Analysis of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Treatment for Lung Cancer Based on Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System (PHITS) <p><span class="fontstyle0">The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of boron concentration on total dose rate for lung cancer treatment, and to determine the effect of boron concentration on the length of irradiation time for lung cancer treatment. This study was computer simulation-based using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) by defining the geometry and components of lung cancer and the surrounding organism as the object being studied and the source of radiation used. The type of phantom used was the ORNL of an adult Asian male. The neutron source used was Kartini Reactor. The independent variable was the boron concentration of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 μg/g cancer tissue and the dependent variables were the dose rate and the irradiation time. The results of this study indicated that the larger the amount of boron concentration that was injected, the higher the rate of total dose the organ received, where the total dose rate for each variation of boron concentration were 1.34 </span><span class="fontstyle2">× </span><span class="fontstyle0">10<sup>-3</sup></span> <span class="fontstyle0">Gy/s, 1.71 </span><span class="fontstyle2">× </span><span class="fontstyle0">10<sup>-3</sup>&nbsp;</span> <span class="fontstyle0">Gy/s, 2.07 </span><span class="fontstyle2">× </span><span class="fontstyle0">10<sup>-3</sup>&nbsp;</span><span class="fontstyle0">Gy/s, 2.42 </span><span class="fontstyle2">× </span><span class="fontstyle0">10<sup>-3</sup>&nbsp;</span> <span class="fontstyle0">Gy/s, and 2.78 </span><span class="fontstyle2">× </span><span class="fontstyle0">10<sup>-3</sup>&nbsp;</span><span class="fontstyle0">Gy/s, and the larger the amount of boron concentration that was injected, the faster the irradiation time for the treatment of lung cancer was, where the irradiation time required for each variation of boron concentration was 37294 s, 29240 s, 24180 s, 20633 s, and 17996 s.</span></p> Ahmad Faisal Harish Warsono Warsono Yohannes Sardjono ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 187 194 10.29037/ajstd.545 Characteristics of Paraffin Shielding of Kartini Reactor, Yogyakarta <p>The National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) Yogyakarta uses two kinds of paraffin for shielding radiation of Kartini reactor. For developing BNCT research, the radiation attenuation capability of paraffin has been analyzed to find out the coefficient attenuation, density, and composition of both kinds of paraffin. The components of the paraffin were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy characterization. Paraffin P1 has a density of 0.689 gr/mL and paraffin P2 is 0.578 gr/mL. Paraffin samples P1 and P2 were the sample content of functional group CH, CH2, and OH when analyzed by FTIR. Paraffin P2 had an additional content namely CO. The concentration of carbon (C) and oxide (O) of paraffin P2 was much greater than that of paraffin P1. Hydrogen (H) in the paraffin has the function of moderating neutrons, but hydrogen content in both kinds of paraffin could not be detected by EDX. The acquired neutron coefficient attenuation of paraffin P2 was 0.0382 cm<sup>-1</sup> and the gamma coefficient attenuation was 0.0535 cm<sup>-1</sup>.</p> Lana Khanifah Susilo Widodo Widarto Widarto Ngurah Made Dharma Putra Argo Satrio ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 195 198 10.29037/ajstd.526 Dose Analysis of Gadolinium Neutron Capture Therapy (GdNCT) on Cancer Using SHIELD-HIT12A <p>This research aimed to determine the dose of radiation received in cancer therapy for each decay of Gadolinium atomic nuclei with isotope 157 (<sup>157</sup>Gd) in Gadolinium Neutron Capture Therapy using the SHIELD-HIT12A program. Knowing the amount of dose given to cancer tissue should aid in minimizing the damage that could occur in the healthy tissue around the cancer tissue, effectively killing only the cancer cells. The simulation employed in this research used the SHIELD-HIT12A program by providing input on beam.dat, mat.dat, detect.dat, and geo.dat files. The output data from the program comprised the value of recoil energy lost (energy absorbed into the target materials) for each of the <sup>157</sup>Gd atomic nuclei, which was then processed by the dose determination equation to determine the dose given by the <sup>157</sup>Gd nucleus to soft tissue. Based on the results, the amount of the dose given by each atomic nucleus <sup>157</sup>Gd to soft tissue was 5.44 × 10<sup>11</sup> Gy/decay.</p> Bagus Novrianto Fasni Yohannes Sardjono Boni Pahlanop Lapanporo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 209 212 10.29037/ajstd.543 Dosimetry of In Vivo Experiment for Lung Cancer Based on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy on Radial Piercing Beam Port Kartini Nuclear Reactor by MCNPX Simulation Method <p>Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally, with lung cancer being among the most prevalent. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a cancer therapy method that uses the interaction between thermal neutrons and boron-10 which produces a decaying boron-11 particle and emits alpha, lithium 7 and gamma particles. A study was carried out to model an in vivo experiment of rat organisms that have lung cancer. Dimensions of a rat’s body were used in Konijnenberg research. Modeling lung cancer type, non-small cell lung cancer, was used in Monte Carlo N Particle-X. Lung cancer was modeled with a spherical geometry consisting of 3 dimensions: PTV, GTV, and CTV. In this case, the neutron source was from the radial piercing beam port of Kartini Reactor, Yogyakarta. The variation of boron concentration was 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 40 µg/g cancer. The output of the MCNP calculation was neutron scattering dose, gamma-ray dose and neutron flux from the reactor. A neutron flux was used to calculate the alpha proton and gamma-ray dose from the interaction of tissue material and thermal neutrons. The total dose was calculated from a four-dose component in BNCT. The results showed that the dose rate will increase when the boron concentration is higher, whereas irradiating time will decrease.</p> Atika Maysaroh Kusminarto Kusminarto Dwi Satya Palupi Yohannes Sardjono ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 213 216 10.29037/ajstd.540 Overview of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: a Medical Aspect <p>Cancer is an abnormal growth of a cell due to the cell’s inability to control and maintain its proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis cycle. There are several methods to treat cancer; one of which is boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). BNCT is a radiation modality by which a high radiation dose is delivered to tumor cells with lower damage to surrounding normal tissue. This modality has been used widely as a treatment for several cancer cases, such as head and neck cancer, breast cancer, and liver cancer. BNCT uses sodium borocaptate (BSH) or boronophenylalanine (BPA) as the delivery agent. Then, the tumor cell is irradiated by thermal radiation. This technique has excellent potential to become a main method of cancer therapy in the future, since it is noninvasive and has fewer side effects than other methods. Further studies on BNCT are needed to improve its performance as a cancer treatment modality.</p> Alan Anderson Bangun Bagaswoto Poedjomartono ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 217 221 10.29037/ajstd.512 Dose Analysis of In Vitro and In Vivo Test for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro and in vivo doses of boron neutron capture cancer therapy (BNCT) using the SHIELD-HIT12A program. To be able to determine the recoil energy, the research was conducted using the Monte Carlo method. Running data obtained the value of ionization activity and recoil lost. The results showed that in vitro and in vivo doses of BNCT for soft tissue irradiation had a value of 0.312 <em>× </em>10<sup>-2</sup> <em>Sv</em>, which is safe and does not harm healthy body tissue around the cancer cells because it is below the threshold of 1.5 Rem or 15 <em>× </em>10<sup>-3</sup> <em>Sv</em>, in accordance with the provisions of the upper value permitted by the International Commission on Radiation Protection in 1966. While the comparative targets are water, the optimal target absorption dose was obtained at concentrations of 3.232 <em>× </em>10<sup>-3</sup> Gy. The dose of carbon equivalent in water with the type of thermal neutron radiation was 16.16 <em>× </em>10<sup>-3</sup> <em>Sv</em>; this dose is classified as unsafe.</p> Hamidatul Faqqiyyah Sunarno Sunarno Isa Akhlis Yohannes Sardjono ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 229 233 10.29037/ajstd.522 Dose Analysis of BNCT Treatment Method for Rhabdomyosarcoma in the Head and Neck Regions Based on PHITS Code <p>&nbsp;The objectives of this research were to find (1) the optimum boron dose for treating rhab- domyosarcoma in the head and neck regions and (2) the effective irradiation time to treat rhab- domyosarcoma in the head and neck regions. This research used the particle and heavy ions transport code system (PHITS) to simulate the neutron source and BNCT doses. The neutron source used was Kartini Reactor. The simulation was carried out by creating the geometry of cancer tissue in the head and neck regions. Boron concentration variance was 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 µg/g tissue. The output of PHITS was a neutron flux and neutron dose. The neutron flux value was used to acquire the alpha dose, proton dose, and gamma dose inside the tissue. The results showed that (1) the optimum boron dose for treating rhabdomyosarcoma in the head and neck regions was 50 µg/g tissue and (2) the effective irradiation time was 7 hours and 4 minutes, which was acquired with a boron concentration of 50 µg/g tissue. The higher the boron concentration level, the higher the dose rate, the quicker the irradiation time, and the lower the radiation dose received by healthy tissues.</p> Dhani Nur Indra Syamputra Yohannes Sardjono Rida Siti Nur’aini Mahmudah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 235 239 10.29037/ajstd.521 Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Cancer: Future Prospects in Indonesia <p>Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a form of cancer therapy based on the interaction of low-energy thermal neutrons and boron-10 (10-B) to produce alpha radiation from He-4 and Li-7 with a high linear energy transfer. A beam of neutrons irradiates a boron drug injected into the tumor, resulting in the boron-injected cancer cells receiving a lethal dose of radiation with the surrounding, healthy cells being minimally affected. Two boron drugs have been used clinically in BNCT, boron sodium captate (BSH) and borophenylalanine (BPA), while a third, pentagamaboronon-0 (PGB-0), is currently under development in the Faculty of Pharmacy of Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. In Indonesia, there has been a growing interest in the study and use of BNCT to treat cancer, as this method is expected to be safer and more effective than traditional cancer treatment methods.</p> Bagaswoto Poedjomartono Hanif Afkari Edy Meiyanto Alan Anderson Bangun Yohanes Sardjono ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 199 201 10.29037/ajstd.510 Analysis of Radiation Interactions and Biological Effects for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy <p>&nbsp;The direct and indirect ionizing radiation sources for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)are identified. The mechanisms of physical, chemical and biological radiation interactions for BNCT are systematically described and analyzed. The relationship between the effect of biological radiation and radiation dose are illustrated and analyzed for BNCT. If the DNAs in chromosomes are damaged by ion- izing radiations, the instructions that control the cell function and reproduction are also damaged. This radiation damage may be reparable, irreparable, or incorrectly repaired. The irreparable damage can result in cell death at next mitosis while incorrectly repaired damage can result in mutation. Cell death leads to variable degrees of tissue dysfunction, which can affect the whole organism’s functions. Can- cer cells cannot live without oxygen and nutrients via the blood supply. A cancer tumor can be shrunk by damaging angiogenic factors and/or capillaries via ionizing radiations to decrease blood supply into the cancer tumor. The collisions between ionizing radiations and the target nuclei and the absorption of the ultraviolet, visible light, infrared and microwaves from bremsstrahlung in the tumor can heat up and damage cancer cells and function as thermotherapy. The cancer cells are more chemically and biologically sensitive at the BNCT-induced higher temperatures since free-radical-induced chemical re- actions are more random and vigorous at higher temperatures after irradiation, and consequently the cancer cells are harder to divide or even survive due to more cell DNA damage. BNCT is demonstrated via a recent clinical trial that it is quite effective in treating recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer.</p> Ren-Tai Chiang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 203 207 10.29037/ajstd.535 Overview on Steady-state Nuclear Methods for BWR Nuclear Core Design and Analysis <p style="text-align: justify;">An overview on nuclear methods for boiling water reactors (BWR) core design and analysis is provided based on the ANS Standard 19.3. The steady-state BWR nuclear methods, composed of neutron cross section library generation method, lattice physics method and core physics method, are systematically reviewed and associated computer codes in common use for BWR core design and analysis are listed. Verification and validation, the two complementary aspects in determining the range of applicability of the calculation system, are discussed extensively. The biases and uncertainties for the predictions from the calculation system over its demonstrated range of applicability are also discussed.</p> Ren-Tai Chiang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-24 2018-12-24 35 3 223 227 10.29037/ajstd.514