Periphytic Diatoms in the Polluted Linggi (sensu stricto) and Kundor Rivers, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia


biological assessment
aquatic ecology
lotic ecosystem
tropical river
river ecology
water pollution
water quality


The investigation in this paper aimed to describe periphytic diatom assemblage, species composition and distribution in tropical polluted Linggi (sensu stricto or s.s.) and Kundor rivers in  Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.  Regardless of ecological and environmental conditions, diatoms were the numerically dominant flora among periphytic  algae  collected monthly over a period of 13 months at nine stations in the Linggi (s.s.) and Kundor rivers.  The freshwater periphytic diatom samples were collected mainly using artificial substrates and supplemented with natural substrates.  The periphytic diatoms thus collected from both natural and artificial substrates comprised 86 taxa (82 pennate and 4 centric forms) belonging to 21 genera. Of the 86 species, 71 species were found colonized in artificial substrates while the remaining 15 species were recorded exclusively on natural substrates. On the whole, the most common diatoms in both rivers combined were Eunotia vanheurckii, Gomphonema parvulum, Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia braunii, Navicula cryptocephala, Achnanthes saxonica, Achnanthes minutissima and Pinnularia microstauron.  The most abundant species were E. vanheurckii, N. palea, A. saxonica, G. parvulum and A. minutissima.


APHA, 1975, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 14th edn, American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington, D.C.

Arumugan, PT 1972, Limnological studies of a reservoir, Subang Lake, Klang, with special reference to algal blooms and pollution, Unpubl.

B.Sc. (Hons.) Thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. B.Sc. (Hons.) Thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.

Bishop, JE 1973, ‘Limnology of a small Malayan

river — Sungai Gombak’, W. Junk, The Hague.

Brown, SD & Austin, AP 1973, ‘Diatom succession and interaction in littoral periphyton and plankton’, Hydro, vol. 43, nos. 3-4, pp. 333–356.

Castenholz, RW 1960, ‘Seasonal changes in the attached algae of freshwater and saline lakes in the lower Grand Coulee, Washington’, Limnol. Oceanogr, vol. 5, pp. 1–28.

Furtado, JI & Mori, S (eds) 1982, ‘The ecology of a tropical freshwater swamp, the Tasek Bera, Malaysia’, Monographiae biologicae; vol. 47, W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Hirano, M 1967, ‘Freshwater algae collected by the joint Thai-Japanese biological expedition to Southeast Asia, 1961–1962’, Nature and Life in S.E Asia, vol. 5, pp. 1–71.

Ho, SC 1973, ‘The ecology of a lowland stream: Sungei Renggam with special reference to pollution’, M. Sc. thesis, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Hohn, MH & Hellerman, J 1963, ‘The taxonomy and structure of diatom populations from three eastern North American rivers using three sampling methods’, Trans. Amer. Microcrop. Soc., vol. 82, pp. 250–329.

King, DL & Ball, RC 1967, ‘Comparative energetics of a polluted streams’, Limnol. Oceanogr., vol. 12, pp. 27–33.

Mackereth, FJH, Heron, J & Talling, JF 1978, ‘Water Scientific Publication, no.

Mizuno, T 1964, ‘Illustrations of the freshwater plankton of Japan’, Hoikusha Publ., Osaka, Japan.

Mizuno, T & Mori, S. 1970, ‘Preliminary hydrobiological survey of some Southest Asian inland waters’, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., vol. 2, pp. 77–117.

Nather Khan, ISA 1985, ‘Studies on the water quality and periphyton community in the Linggi River Basin Malaysia’, Ph. D thesis, Uiversity of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Nather Khan, ISA 1990a, ‘Diatom distribution and inter-site relationship in the Linggi River Basin, Peninsular Malaysia, Malayan Nature Journal, vol. 44, pp. 85 – 95.

Nather Khan, ISA 1990b, ‘Assessment of water pollution using diatom community structure and species distribution — a case study in a tropical river basin’, Int. Revue ges. Huydrobio., vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 317–338.

Nather Khan, ISA 1990c, ‘The mineralogy and trace element constituents of suspended stream sediments of the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia’, J. Southeast Asian Earth Sciences, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 133 – 139.

Nather Khan, ISA 1991a, ‘Evaluation of effect of urban and industrial wastes on species diversity of diatom community in a tropical river basin, Malaysia’, Hydrobiologia, vol. 224, pp. 175–184.

Nather Khan, ISA 1991b, ‘Sources of pollution and control strategies for the Linggi River Basin (Tropical), Malaysia, Chap XXXIX Environmental studies, in Proceedings of 9th Miami International Congress on Energy and Environment, vol. G, Nova Science Publishers Inc, New York, USA.

Nather Khan, ISA 1992a, ‘A study on the impact of urban and industrial development on quality of rivers in the Linggi River Basin 1, morphometry and physical environment’, Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol., vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 203–223.

Nather Khan, ISA 1992b, ‘A study on the impact of urban and industrial development on quality of rivers in the Linggi River Basin 2, chemical environment’, Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol., vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 203–223.

Nather Khan, ISA & Haji Mohamed, M 1985, ‘Freshwater Malaysia algae 2, the Diatoms’, Nature Malaysiana, vol. 10, pp. 28–31

Nather Khan, ISA., Lim, RP & Ratnasabapathy, M 1986a, ‘Changes in river diatom community structure due to natural rubber effluent’, Malaysian J. Sci., vol. 8, pp. 85–89.

Nather Khan, ISA, Lim, RP & Furtado, JI 1986b, ‘The impact of natural rubber effluent (SMR) on the distribution and species diversity of the diatom community in the Batang Penar River, Malaysia’, in Proc. Int. Conf. Chem. Envir., eds JN Lester et al., Lisbon, Portugal 187–194.

Nather Khan, ISA, Furtado, JI & Lim, RP 1987, ‘Periphyton on artificial and natural substrates in a tropical river’, Arch. Hydrobiol.Beih., Ergebn. Limnol.’, vol. 28, pp. 473–484.

Nather Khan, ISA & Lim, RP 1991, ‘Distribution of metals in the Linggi River Basin with reference to pollution’, Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res., 1991, vol. 42, pp. 435–439.

Nather Khan, I & Firuza, BM 2010, ‘Spatial and temporal variation of Silica in a disturbed tropical river basin’, Sains Malaysiana, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 189–198.

Nather Khan, I & Firuza, BM 2012, Biological assessment of water pollution using periphyton productivity and standing crop in the Linggi River, Malaysia’, International Review Hydrobiologia, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 124–156.

Palmer, CM 1969, ‘A composite rating of algae toleration organic pollution’, Journal of Phycology, vol. 5, pp. 78.

Patrick, R & Reimer, CW 1966, ‘The diatoms of the United States. Exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii’, vol. I, Mongor. Acad Nat. Sci. Phila., no. 13.

Prowse, GS 1962a, ‘Diatom of Malayan freshwaters’,

Gard. Bull. Sing., vol. 19, pp. 1–104.

Prowse, GA & Ratnasabapathy, M 1970, ‘A species list of freshwater algae from Taiping Lakes, Perak, Malaysia’, Gard. Bull. Sing.’, vol. 25, pp. 179–187.

Sladecek, V & Sladeckova, A 1964, ‘Determination of the periphyton production by means of the glass slide method’, Hydrobiologia, vol. 23, pp. 125-158.

Sladecek, V 1963, ‘A guide to limnosaprobial organisms scientific papers from institute of chemical technology, Prague’, Technology of water, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 543–612.

Whitford, LA & Schumacher, GJ 1963, ‘Communities of algae in North Carolina streams and their seasonalrelations’, Hydrobiologia, vol. 22, pp. 133–196.


Download data is not yet available.