Tungsten (VI) oxide, WO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) technique. The resultant WO3 nanoparticles were characterized by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in order to determine the phase transitions, the crystallinity and the size of the WO3 nanoparticles. As a comparison, transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to investigate the size of the WO3 nanoparticles. The result from XRD and DTA show that the formation of polymorphs WO3 nanoparticles have the following sequence: orthorhombic (bWO3) ® monoclinic (g-WO3) ® triclinic (d-WO3) ® monoclinic (e-WO3) with respect to the calcination temperature of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. No diffraction peaks were found in the X-Ray diffraction measurements for the sample heat treated at 300°C (as-prepared), suggesting that an amorphous structure was obtained at this temperature whereas the crystallinity had been obtained by the other samples of the WO3 nanoparticles at the calcination temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. It is also found that the X-Ray diffraction measurements produced an average diameter of (30 ± 5), (50 ± 5), (150 ± 10) and (200 ± 10) nm at calcination temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C respectively by using Debye-Scherrer formula. The TG curve revealed that the WO3 nanoparticles is purely anhydrous since the weight loss is insignificant (0.3 – 1.4) % from 30 until 600°C for the WO3 nanoparticles calcined at 400°C. Finally, the composition and the purity of the WO3 nanoparticles have been examined by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate no significant changes to the composition and the purity of the WO3 nanoparticles produced due to the temperature variations.
M. Gotic, M. Ivanda, S. Popovic and S. Music. Mater. Sci. Eng. B 77 (2000), p. 193.
L.J. Legore, K. Snow, J.D. Galipeau and J.F. Vetelino, Sens. Actuators B 35 (1996), p. 164.
Jimenez, J. Arbiol, G. Dezanneau, A. Cornet and J.R. Morante. Sensors Actuators B 93 (2003), p. 475.
J.L. Solis, A. Hoel, L.B. Kish, C.G. Granqvist, S. Saukko and V. Lantto. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 84 (2001), p. 1504.
Dutta, N. Kaabbuathong, M.L. Grilli, E. Di Bartolomeo and E. Traversa. Electrochem. Soc. 150 (2003), p. H33.
M. Gerlich, S. Kornely, M. Fleischer, H. Meixner and R. Kassing. Sensors Actuators B 93 (2003), p. 503.
Jimenez, M.A. Centeno, R. Scotti, F. Morazzoni, A. Cornet and J.R. Morante. J. Electrochem. Soc. 150 (2003), p. H72.
R.C. Niall, H.M. Frank, P.H. Bryant. Optical Materials Technology for Energy Efficiency and Solar Energy Conversion, vol. VI, SPIE. 823 (1987), p.131.
M. Nabavi, S. Doeuff, C. Sanchez, J. Livage, Mater. Sci. Eng. B. 3 (1989), p. 203.
L. Klein. Sol-Gel Optics: Processing and Applications. Kluwer, Boston, 1994.
M.P. Pileni. Langmuir 13 (1997), p. 3266.
D. Poondi, T. Dobbins, and J. Singh. J. Mater. Sci. 35 (2000), p. 6237.
J.G. Lee, J.Y. Park and C.S. Kim. J. Mater. Sci. 33 (1998), p. 3965.
X. Mo, C.Y. Wang, M. You, Y.R. Zhu, Z.Y. Chen and Y. Hu. Mater. Res. Bull. 36 (1998), p. 2277.
Y. Li, F.Z. Huang, Q.M. Zhang and Z.N. Gu. J. Mater. Sci. 35 (2000), p. 5933.
F. Sebba. 1971. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 35 (1971), pp. 643.
S.F. Abdullah, S. Radiman, M.A. Abd. Hamid and N.B. Ibrahim, Colloid Surf. A. 280 (2006), p. 88.
C. Howard, V. Luca and K. Knight. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 14 (2002), p. 377.
Y. Xu, S. Carlson and R. Norrestam. J. Solid State Chem. 132 (1997), p. 123.
P.M. Woodward, A.W. Sleight and T. Vogt. J. Solid State Chem. 131 (1997), p. 9.
K.R. Locherer, I.P. Swainson and E.K.H. Salje. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 11 (1999), p. 4143.
K.R. Locherer, I.P. Swainson and E.K.H. Salje. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter. 11 (1999), p. 6737.
Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS), File No. 71-0131.
Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS), File No. 83-0950.
Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS), File No. 83-0947.
Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards (JCPDS), File No. 75-2072.
J.G. Deng, X.B. Ding, W.C. Zhang, Y.X. Peng, J.H. Wang, X.P. Long, P. Ii and S.C. Chen. Polymer 43 (2002), p. 2179.
Yong-Gyu Choi, G. Sakai, K. Shimanoe, N. Miura and N. Yamazoe. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 87 (2002), p. 63-72.
E. Salje. Acta Crystallogr. A 31 (1975), p. 360.
E. Salje. Acta Crystallogr. B 33 (1977), p. 574.
E. Salje and G. Hoppmann. High Temp. High Pressures. 12 (1980), p. 213.
E. Cazzanelli, C. Vinegoni, G. Mariotto, A. Kuzmin and J. Purans. J. Solid State Chem. 143 (1999), p. 24.
E. Cazzanelli, C. Vinegoni, G. Mariotto, A. Kuzmin and J. Purans. Solid State Ionics. 123 (1999), p. 67.
XPS Handbook of The Element and Native Oxides (WO X) (1999), XPS International, Inc.