A Preliminary Study: Comparative Toxicity of Extracts from Tinospora tuberculata Beumee and Lumnitzera racemosa Willd on Aedes aegypti Linnaeus Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)


Tinospora tuberculata
Lumnitzera racemosa
Aedes aegypti
herbal plants
mosquito vector
dengue vectors


Research has been widely made on the  potential use of herbal plants as effective agents for mosquito vector control. However, only a few studies have been carried out to investigate the potential insecticidal activity of mangrove plants against these dengue vectors. This study was carried out to examine the comparative toxicity of two mangrove plants, Tinospora tuberculata and Lumnitzera racemosa against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The leaf and stem of T. tuberculata and L. racemosa, were extracted using 95% methanol and these extracts bioassayed against the 3rd instar larvae of  aegypti under laboratory conditions.  The LC50 values of the crude extract of T. tuberculata stem and leaf were 0.5778 mg/ml and 0.7213 mg/ml, respectively. For L. racemosa, the LC50 value for stem was 1.2833 mg/ml and 1.1957 mg/ml for leaf. However, no significant differences in toxicity were detected for the stem and leaf of both plants. Both plants, especially T. tuberculata might contain insecticidal components toxic to larvae of Ae aegypti



Alkofahi, A, Rupprecht, JK, Anderson, JE, Mclaughlin, JL, Mikolajczak, KL & Scott, BA 1989, ‘Search for new pesticides from higher plants’, in Insecticides of plant origin, eds JT Arnason, BJR Philogene & P Morand, pp. 25–43.

Bandara, KAN P, Kumar, V, Jacobson, U & Molleyres, LP 2000, ‘Insecticidal piperidine alkaloid from Microcos paniculata stem bark’, Phytochemistry, vol. 54, pp. 29–32.

Curtis, CF 1986, ‘Fact and fiction in mosquito attraction and repulsion’, Parasitology Today, vol. 2, pp. 316–318.

Essam, ASS, Deon, C, Mohamed, WFY, Hoda, AW & Abdel, HM 2004, ‘A review of botanical phytochemicals with mosquitocidal potential’, Journal of Environmental International, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1149–1166.

Finney, DJ 1971, Probit analysis, 3rd edn, New York, Cambridge University Press.

Glubber, D 1989, ‘Aedes aegypti and Aedes aegyptiborne disease control in the 1990’s: top down or bottom up’, American of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 40, pp. 571–578.

Ibuka, T, Kitano, M, Watanabe, Y & Matsui, M 1967, ‘Studies on the alkaloids of Menispermaceous plants. Alkaloids of Stephania japonica Miers. 18. Structure of Hasubanonine’, Chemical Pharmacology Bulletine (Tokyo).

Jacobson, M 1989, ‘Botanical pesticides, past, present and future in insecticides of plant origin’, in Proceeding of the American Chemical Society, ed JT Arnason, Washington DC, pp. 1–10.

Ken, O, Zach, AE, Emily, NT, Irma, ASV, Barry, BJ & Carol, BD 2002, ‘Developing arbovirus resistance in mosquitoes’, Journal of Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 32, pp. 1333–1343.

Lee, HL & Hishamudin, M 1990, ‘Nationwide Aedes larval survey in urban towns of Peninsular Malaysia (1988–1989)’, Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 7, pp. 185–188.

Premanathan, M, Chandra, K, Bajpai, SK & Kathiresan, K 1992, ‘A survey of some Indian marine plants for antiviral activity’, Botanica Marina, vol. 35, pp. 321–324.

Senthil, NS, Kalaivani, K & Murugan, K 2005, ‘Effects of neem limonoids on malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)’, Acta Tropica Journal, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 47–55.

Sadasivam, S & Thayumanavan, B 2003, Molecular host plant resistance to pests, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore, India, pp. 197–239.

Thangam, ST & Kathiresan, K 1990, ‘Synergistic effect of insecticides with plant extracts on mosquito larvae’, Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 7, pp. 135–137.

Wong, OP 2001, ‘Kajian ketoksikan beberapa ekstrak tumbuhan ke atas larva Aedes aegypti’, Thesis, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; and Yap KS, ‘Kesan Ketoksikan Ekstrak Kasar Hempedu Beruang. Thottea corymbosa terhadap larvae nyamuk Aedes aegypti’, Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, University College of Science and Technology, Malaysia.

World Health Organization 1981, Instruction for determining the susceptibility or resistance of mosquito larvae to insecticide, WHO, Geneva.


Download data is not yet available.