Limited knowledge of native marine biodiversity hinders effective biodiversity management to safeguard South and Southeast Asia’s marine coastal environment against the threat of invasive species transfer through shipping. In particular, sessile marine biofouling organisms in South East Asian ports are poorly known. Through the support of the ASEAN-India Cooperation Project on the Extent of Transfer of Alien Invasive Organisms in South/South East Asia Region by Shipping, a coordinated effort to examine diversity of biofouling organisms in major port areas in Southeast Asia and India was made using polyvinylchloride (PVC) panels as recruitment surfaces in a static immersion study for a period of 12 months. Not surprisingly, the study revealed that fouling patterns differed between ports possibly as a result of dissimilar hydrographic conditions. However, there were also underlying similarities that reflected a regional uniformity in the composition of fouling communities. At the same time, the alien Caribbean bivalve Mytilopsis sallei was detected in Manila Bay (Philippines), Songkhla Port (Thailand) and Singapore. This is a first simultaneous biofouling survey involving scientists and government stakeholders from India and ASEAN nations of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines and Vietnam.
Bax N, Williamson A, Aguero M, Gonzalez E, Geeves W. 2003. Marine invasive alien species: a threat to global biodiversity. Marine Policy 27:313–323.
Booy O, Cornwell L, Parrott D, Sutton-Croft M, Williams F. 2017. Impact of biological invasions on infrastructure. In: Vilà M, Hulme P, editors. Impact of biological invasions on ecosystem services. The Netherlands: Springer International Publishing. p. 235–247.
Cohen AN, Carlton JT. 1998. Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary. Science 279 (5350):555–558.
Coutts ADM, Dodgshun TJ. 2007. The nature and extent of organisms in vessel sea-chests: a protected mechanism for marine bioinvasions. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:875–886.
Craft Risk Management Standard: Biofouling on Vessels Arriving to New Zealand. 2014. Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand.
Crowl TA, Crist TO, Parmenter RR, Belovsky G, Lugo AE. 2008. The spread of invasive species and infectious disease as drivers of ecosystem change. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 6(5):238–246.
Dahlstrom A, Hewitt CL, Campbell ML. 2010. A review of international, regional and national biosecurity risk assessment frameworks. Marine Policy 35:208–217.
Desai DV, Krishnamurty V, Anil AC. 2018. Biofouling community structure in a tropical estuary of Goa on on the west coast of India. ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development 35:37–42.
Eldredge LG, Carlton JT. 2002. Hawaiian marine bioinvasions: a preliminary assessment. Pacific Science 56(2):211–212.
Floerl O, Inglis GJ, Marsh HM. 2005. Selectivity in vector management: an investigation of the effectiveness of measures used to prevent transport of non-indigenous species. Biological Invasions 7:459–475.
Gaonkar CA, Sawant SS, Anil AC, Venkat K, Harkantra SN. 2010. Mumbai harbour, India: gateway for introduction of marine organisms. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 163:583–589.
GloBallast. 2000. Removal of barriers to the effective implementation of ballast water control and management measures in developing countries. Global Ballast Water Management Programme. International Maritime Organization, Global Environment Facility, United Nations Development Programme.
Hadiyanto H. 2018. Fouling polychaetes in Tanjung Priok Port of Jakarta, Indonesia. ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development 35: 79–88.
Hewitt CL. 2002. Distribution and biodiversity of Australian tropical marine bioinvasions. Pacific Science 56(2):213–222.
Hing LS, Bhubalan K, Tan PY, Husain RM. 2018. Composition of ballast water from ships arriving at Kertih Port, Malaysia with observations on port and offshore waters, and notes on settlement patterns of fouling organisms. ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development 35:89–100.
Hutchings PA, Hilliard RW, Coles SL. 2002. Species introductions and potential for marine pest invasions into tropical marine communities, with special reference to the Indo-Pacific. Pacific Science 56(2):223–233.
International Maritime Organization. 2004. International convention for the control and management of ships' ballast water and sediments. London, UK.
International Maritime Organization. 2011. Biofouling guidelines for the control and management of ship’ biofouling to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species. Annex 26. Resolution.MEPC 207 (62).
Jolkifli Z, Wahab RA. 2018. Plate settlement: Determination of fouling organisms in Brunei. ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development 35:11–16.
Kaluza P, Kölzsch A, Gastner MT, Blasius B. 2010. The complex network of global cargo ship movements. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 7:1093–1103.
Keller RP, Drake JM, Drew MB, Lodge DM. 2011. Linking environmental conditions and ship movements to estimate invasive species transport across the global shipping network. Diversity and Distribution 17:93–102.
Khaing MM. 2018. Marine fouling panel survey and assessment of marine alien invasive species in Myanmar. ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development 35:101–106.
Lee SSC, Teo SLM, Lambert G. 2013. New records of solitary ascidians on artificial structures in Singapore waters. Marine Biodiversity 6:1–18.
Lim CS, Leong YL, Tan KS. 2017. Managing the risk of nonindigenous marine species transfer in Singapore using a study of vessel movement. Marine Pollution Bulletin 115:332–344.
Lim JY, Tay TS, Lim CS, Lee SCS, Teo SLM, Tan KS. 2018. Mytella strigata (Bivalvia: Mytilidae): an alien mussel recently introduced to Singapore and spreading rapidly. Molluscan Research 38(3):170–186.
Liu TK, Tsai TK. 2011. Vessel traffic patterns in the Port of Kaohsiung and the management implications for preventing the introduction of non-indigenous aquatic species. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62:602–608.
Lo VB, Levings CD, Chan KMA. 2012. Quantifying potential propagule pressure of aquatic invasive species from the commercial shipping industry in Canada. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64:295–302.
Low KL, Khoo HW, Koh LL. 1991. Ecology of marine fouling organisms at Eastern Johore Strait. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 19:319–333.
Madin J, Chong VC, Basri B. 2009. Development and shortterm dynamics of macrofouling assemblages on fishcage nettings in a tropical estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 83:19–29.
Molnar JL, Gamboa RL, Revenga C, Spalding MD. 2008. Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 6(9):485–492.
Nacorda HME, Austero NM, Pagdilao CR, Tan KS, Azanza RV. 2018. Marine biofouling communities of Manila South Harbor, Philippines. ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development 35:115–124.
Nandhini S, Revathi K. 2016. Study on biofouling organisms present on the surface of boats in Royapuram, Chennai. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology 15(1):257–261.
Nghiem LTP, Soliman T, Yeo DCJ, Tan HTW, Evans TA, Mumford JD, Keller RP, Baker RHA, Corlett RT, Carrasco LR. 2013. Economic and environmental impacts of harmful non-indigenous species in Southeast Asia. PLoS ONE 8(8):1–9.
Ong JJL, Tan KS. 2012. Observations on the subtidal fouling community on jetty pilings in the Southern Islands of Singapore. Contributions to Marine Science 2012:121–126.
Pati SK, Rao MV, Balaji M. 2015. Spatial and temporal changes in biofouling community structure at Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India. Tropical Ecology 56(2):139–154.
Peh KSH. 2010. Invasive species in Southeast Asia: the knowledge so far. Biodiversity Conservation 19:1083–1099.
Piola RF, McDonald JI. 2012. Marine biosecurity: The importance of awareness, support and cooperation in managing a successful incursion response. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64:1766–1773.
Puttapreecha R, Kajonwattanakul S, Songkai P, Choamanee C. 2018. Survey of fouling organisms at Songkhla Port in Thailand. ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development 35:147–152.
Schultz MP, Bendick JA, Holm ER, Hertel WM. 2011. Economic impact of biofouling on a naval surface ship. Biofouling 27(1):87–98.
Seebens H, Gastner MT, Blasius B. 2013. The risk of marine bioinvasion caused by global shipping. Ecology Letters 16(6):782–790.
Spalding MD, Fox HE, Allen GR, Davidson N, Ferdaña ZA, Finlayson M, Halpern BS, Jorge MA, Lombana A, Lourie SA, Martin KD, McManus E, Molnar J, Recchia CA, Robertson J. 2007. Marine eco-regions of the world: a bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. Bioscience 57(7):573–583.
Strayer DL. 2009. Twenty years of zebra mussels: lessons from the mollusk that made headlines. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 7(3):135–141.
Swami BS, Udhayakumar M. 2010. Seasonal influence on settlement, distribution and diversity of fouling organisms at Mumbai Harbour. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 39(1):57–67.
Tan KS, Morton B. 2006. The invasive Caribbean bivalve Mytilopsis sallei (Dreissenidae) Introduced to Singapore and Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54(2):429–434.
Toh KB, Ng LCS, Wu B, Toh TC, Cheo PR, Tun K, Chou LM. 2017. Spatial variability of epibiotic assemblages on marina pontoons in Singapore. Urban Ecosystems 20:183–197.
Vallejo Jr B, Conejar-Espedido J, Manubag L, Artiaga KCC, Damatac II AM, Imperial ICVJ, Itong TAB, Fontanilla IK, Cao EP. 2017. First record of the Charru mussel Mytella charruana d’Orbignyi, 1846 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) from Manila Bay, Luzon, Philippines. Bioinvasions Records 6:49–55.