The oral application of probiotics in the poultry industry is time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, using a powdered probiotic supplement that can easily mix with feed is important. We investigated the effect of spray drying encapsulation on the viability of indigenous probiotic lactic acid bacteria during production and storage and evaluated broiler chicken performance after providing the supplement. Encapsulated probiotics exhibited >80% survival rates after spray drying. All bacterial species maintained up to 80% cell viability rates after exposure to 80–85°C temperatures for 15 or 30 s. The viable cell number of all encapsulated bacteria decreased over seven weeks of storage. The supplement was mixed with feed at concentrations 0.5 (T1), 1.0 (T2), and 1.5 (T3) g/kg feed and administered to 48 one-day-old Lohmann broiler chickens for 21 days; a T0 group was raised without probiotic supplementation. Probiotic supplementation affected body weight gain, live weight, and feed conversion ratio. The cecum length and duodenum and cecum weights significantly differed among the treatment groups. Probiotic supplementation was associated with improved villus development in the intestinal epithelium compared with that of the control. Thus, feed supplementation with indigenous probiotic powder stimulates intestinal epithelial proliferation in broiler chickens during the starter phase, improving their performance.
Abd-Talib N, Mohd-Setapar SH, Khamis AK, Nian-Yian L, Aziz R. 2013. Survival of encapsulated probiotics through spray drying and non-refrigerated storage for animal feeds application. Agric Sci. 4:78–83. doi:10.4236/as.2013.45b015.
Amerah AM, Quiles M, Medel P, Sanchez J, Lehtinen MJ, Gracia MI. 2013. Effect of pelleting temperature and probiotic supplementation on growth performance and immune function of broilers fed maize/soy-based diets. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 180(1–4):55–63. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.01.002.
Anuradha S, Rajeshwari K. 2005. Probiotics in health and disease. J Indian Acad Clin Med. 6:67–72.
Arsi K, Donoghue AM, Woo-Ming A, Blore PJ, Donoghue DJ. 2015. The efficacy of selected probiotic and prebiotic combinations in reducing Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. J Appl Poult Res. 24(3):327–334. doi:10.3382/japr/pfv032.
Burgain J, Gaiani C, Linder M, Scher J. 2011. Encapsulation of probiotic living cells: From laboratory scale to industrial applications. J Food Eng. 104(4):467–483. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.12.031.
Cogliani C, Goossens H, Greko C. 2011. Restricting antimicrobial use in food animals: lessons from Europe. Microbe Mag. 6(6):274–279. doi:10.1128/microbe.6.274.1.
Crowe JH, Carpenter JM, Crowe LM. 1998. The role of vitrification in anhydrobiosis. Annu Rev Physiol. 60(1):73–103. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.60.1.73.
Fuller R. 1992. History and development of probiotics. In: Probiotics. Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing. p. 1–8. doi:10.1007/978-94-011-2364-8_1.
Gharsallaoui A, Roudaut G, Chambin O, Voilley A, Saurel R. 2007. Applications of spray-drying in microencapsulation of food ingredients: An overview. Food Res Int. 40(9):1107–1121. doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2007.07.004.
Harimurti S. 2009. Study of competitive exclusion of Salmonella pullorum by probiotic strains in the broiler chickens. International Seminar of 5th Asian Conference on Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbes in Disease Prevention and Treatment, Singapore.
Harimurti S. 2011. Indigenous lactic acid bacteria probiotics: its influence on biological expressions of broiler chickens [PhD thesis]. [Yogyakarta]: Universitas Gadjah Mada.
Harimurti S, Hadisaputro W. 2014. Effect of indigenous probiotics lactic acid bacteria on performance, intestinal length and weight of internal organs of broiler chicken. International Conference on Beneficial Microbes, Penang, Malaysia. p. 179–181.
Harimurti S, Hadisaputro W. 2015. Probiotics in poultry. In: Liong MT, Steinbüchel A, editors. Beneficial microorganisms in agriculture, aquaculture and other areas. Springer International Publishing. p. 1–19. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-23183-9_1.
Harimurti S, Huda M, Kristiani AD. 2013. The dynamics of indigenous lactic acid bacteria probiotics on carcass yield, abdominal fat and intestinal morphology of broilers. Proceeding of the 3rd AINI International Seminar. Padang: Indonesian Association of Nutrition And Feed Science. p. 185–188.
Harimurti S, Nasroedin N, Kurniasih. 2007. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of chicken: potential use as probiotic. J Anim Prod. 9:82–91.
Harimurti S, Rahayu ES, Kurniasih. 2012. The impact of indigenous lactic acid bacteria on the ability to adhere on chicken ileal epithelial cells and productivity performance of the broiler. The 15th Asian Australasian Animal Production Congress, Bangkok. p. 1314–1318.
Kailasapathy K. 2002. Microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria: technology and potential applications. Curr Issues Intest Microbiol. 3(2):39–48.
Muttaqin A. 2005. Study of pelleting lactic acid bacteria probiotics as feed supplement on chickens [PhD thesis]. [Yogyakarta]: Universitas Gadjah Mada.
Mutukumira AN, Ang V, Lee SJ. 2014. Viability and properties of spray-dried Lactobacillus casei-01. Proceedings of the International Conference on Beneficial Microbes, Penang, Malaysia.
National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/2114.
Ray B. 1996. Fundamental food microbiology. 1st edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Schneitz C, Koivunen E, Tuunainen P, Valaja J. 2016. The effects of a competitive exclusion product and two probiotics on Salmonella colonization and nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. J Appl Poult Res. 25(3):396–406. doi:10.3382/japr/pfw025.
Serna-Cock L, Vallejo-Castillo V. 2013. Probiotic encapsulation. African J Microbiol Res. 7(40):4743–4753. doi:10.5897/ajmr2013.5718.
Setlow P. 2006. Spores of Bacillus subtilis: their resistance to and killing by radiation, heat and chemicals. J Appl Microbiol. 101(3):514–525. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02736.x.
Soukoulis C, Behboudi-Jobbehdar S, Yonekura L, Parmenter C, Fisk I. 2014. Impact of milk protein type on the viability and storage stability of microencapsulated Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 701748 using spray drying. Food Bioprocess Technol. 7(5):1255–1268. doi:10.1007/s11947-013-1120-x.
van Immerseel F, de Zutter L, Houf K, Pasmans F, Haeserbrouck F, Ducatelle R. 2009. Strategies to control Salmonella in the broiler production chain. World’s Poult Sci J. 65(3):367–392. doi:10.1017/s0043933909000270.
van Oss CJ. 2008. The extended DLVO theory. In: van Oss CJ, editor. The properties of water and their role in colloidal and biological systems. Amsterdam: Academic Press. p. 31–48. doi:10.1016/S1573-4285(08)00203-2.