Forest fires are one of the global issues that attract worldwide attention. Russia, Brazil, Canada, the United States, and Indonesia are among the countries with the largest forest cover and long records of massive forest fires. Forest fire management is, therefore, critical to decreasing the severity level of these fires. Current conditions indicate that, compared with the four other countries, Indonesia has significantly reduced forest fires within the past five years. Consequently, adopting a global perspective to study the characteristics of forest fire disaster management has become necessary. For each management parameter, this research employed a literature review and descriptive analysis. The results showed that Indonesia had an advantage in the field of legal regulation. Indonesia tends to change its regulations within a short span of time, resulting in the number of forest fire incidents decreasing significantly compared with Russia, Brazil, Canada, and the United States. However, the country still has several weaknesses, namely in emergency responses, forest fire monitoring technology, and inter-institutional integration in forest fire disaster management.
American Forest Foundation. c2017–2020. Washington, DC: American Forest Foundation; [accessed 2018 Mar 15]. https://www.forestfoundation.org.
BBC News Indonesia. 2015 Oct 8. Kabut asap: Presiden minta bantuan empat negara [Haze: the president is asking for help from four countries]. BBC News Indonesia. [accessed 2018 Mar 19]. https://www.bbc.com/indonesia/berita_indonesia/2015/10/151008_indonesia_bantuan_asap.
Beuchelt TD, Virchow D. 2012. Food sovereignty or the human right to adequate food: which concept serves better as international development policy for global hunger and poverty reduction? Agr Hum Values. 29(2):259–273. doi:10.1007/s10460-012-9355-0.
[BMKG] Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika [Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysical Agency]. c2020. Jakarta: Badan Meteorologi, Klimatologi, dan Geofisika; [accessed 2018 Mar 28]. https://www.bmkg.go.id.
[BNPB] Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana [National Disaster Management Authority]. c2017–2020. Jakarta: Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana; [accessed 2018 Mar 28]. https://bnpb.go.id.
Budiningsih K. 2017. Implementasi kebijakan pengendalian kebakaran hutan dan lahan di Provinsi Sumatera Selatan [Implementation of forest and land fire control policies in South Sumatra province]. Jurnal Analisis Kebijakan Kehutanan. 14(2):165–186. doi:10.20886/jakk.2017.14.2.165-186.
Carbon Canopy. c2020. Washington, DC: Carbon Canopy; [accessed 2018 Mar 5]. http://www.carboncanopy.com.
[CCFM] Canadian Council of Forest Ministers. c2020. Ottawa: Canadian Council of Forest Ministers; [accessed 2018 Mar 27]. https://www.ccfm.org/english.
[CIFOR] Center for International Forestry Research. c2020. Bogor: Center for International Forestry Research; [accessed 2018 Mar 22]. https://www.cifor.org.
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit. 2011. Preventing, controlling and monitoring fires in the Cerrado. Bonn and Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit. https://www.giz.de/en/worldwide/12505.html.
Dubé DE. 1984. International cooperation in forest fire research. Forest resources management—the influence of policy and law. Proceedings of the International Forest Congress; Ottawa, Canada. p. 401–404.
[EMERCOM] Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters. c2020. Moscow: Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters; [accessed 2018 Mar 27]. https://en.mchs.ru.
[FAO] Food and Agriculture Organization. 2015. Global forest resources assessment 2015. Rome: FAO. http://www.fao.org/forest-resources-assessment/past-assessments/fra-2015/en/.
Federal Forestry Agency of Russia. c2020. Moscow: Federal Forestry Agency of Russia; [accessed 2018 Mar 28]. http://rosleshoz.gov.ru/english.
[FEMA] Federal Emergency Management Agency. c2020. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency; [accessed 2018 Mar 30]. https://www.fema.gov.
Forest Trends. c2017–2020. Washington, DC: Forest Trends; [accessed 2018 Mar 11]. https://www.forest-trends.org.
Gebrehiwot SG, Bewket W, Bishop K. 2014. Community perceptions of forest–water relationships in the Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia. GeoJournal. 79(5):605–618. doi:10.1007/s10708-013-9519-5.
Goemans M, Ballamingie P. 2013. Forest as hazard, forest as victim: Community perspectives and disaster mitigation in the aftermath of Kelowna’s 2003 wildfires. Can Geogr. 57(1):56–71. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0064.2012.00447.x.
Government of Canada. 1990. Forest fires prevention act, R.S.O. 1990, c. F.24. https://www.ontario.ca/laws/statute/90f24.
Government of Canada. 2020. Operation LENTUS. [accessed 2018 Mar 3]. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/services/operations/military-operations/current-operations/operation-lentus.html.
Government of Indonesia. 2016. Peraturan Menteri Lingkungan hidup dan kehutanan nomor 44 tahun 2016 [Minister of Environment and Forestry regulation number 44 of 2016].
Government of the Russian Federation. 2013. State policy on forest use, protection and reproduction in the Russian Federation for the period until 2030. http://static.government.ru/media/files/9p0rkgpjrP4euQfWKylV1hHssTtiYOQ6.pdf.
Greenpeace Russia. c2020. Moscow: Greenpeace Russia; [accessed 2018 Mar 14]. http://www.greenpeace.org/russia/en/.
Hirschberger P. 2016. Forests ablaze: causes and effects of global forest fires. Berlin: WWF Deutschland. https://www.wwf.de/fileadmin/fm-wwf/Publikationen-PDF/WWF-Study-Forests-Ablaze.pdf.
Hitchcock E. 2011. The 2006 forest code of the Russian Federation: an evaluation of environmental legislation in Russia. Australian Slavonic and East European Studies. 24(1–2):19–39. https://miskinhill.com.au/journals/asees/24:1-2/2006-forest-code.
[IAFF] International Association Fire Fighters. c2020. Washington, DC: International Association Fire Fighters; [accessed 2018 Mar 18]. https://www.iaff.org.
[IFRC] International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. c2020. Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; [accessed 2018 Mar 14]. https://media.ifrc.org/ifrc.
Illinois [EPA] Environmental Protection Agency. c2020. Open burning permits; [accessed 2018 Mar 23]. https://www2.illinois.gov/epa/topics/forms/air-permits/Pages/open-burning.aspx.
[ISDR] International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. c2020. Sao Paulo: United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction; [accessed 2018 Mar 15]. https://www.eird.org/eng/terminologia-eng.htm.
[KLHK] Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan [Ministry of Environment and Forestry of Indonesia]. c2018. Jakarta: Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan; [accessed 2018 Mar 29]. https://www.menlhk.go.id.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. c2020. Burning permit information; [accessed 2018 Mar 28]. https://www.dnr.state.mn.us/forestry/fire/questions.html.
National Forest Foundation. c2020. Missoula: National Forest Foundation; [accessed 2018 Mar 1]. https://www.nationalforests.org.
Natural Resources Canada. 2015. Canada’s regulatory framework for forest management. Ottawa: Natural Resources Canada. https://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/pubwarehouse/pdfs/35982.pdf.
Natural Resources Canada. c2020. Ottawa: Natural Resources Canada; [accessed 2018 Mar 26]. https://www.nrcan.gc.ca.
Nolasco MIM. 2006. Global forest resources assessment 2005-report on fires in the South American Region. Rome: FAO. https://gfmc.online/programmes/un/fao/FAO-Final-12-Regional-Reports-FRA-2005/WP%20FM05E%20South%20America.pdf.
[NTS OMZ] Research Center for Earth Operative Monitoring. c2020. Moscow: Research Center for Earth Operative Monitoring; [accessed 2018 Mar 7]. http://eng.ntsomz.ru.
PPI Dunia. 2017 Mar 21. Hutan untuk kehidupan [Forest for life] [blog]. PPI Dunia. [accessed 2018 Mar 21]. http://old.ppidunia.org/hutan-untuk-kehidupan/.
Pringadi BH. 2004. Pengendalian kerusakan lahan, hutan dan air [Control of damage to land, forests and water]. INFOMATEK. 6(1):47–50.
Rábade JM, Aragoneses C. 2008. Social impact of large-scale forest fires. Paper presented at: The Second International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: A Global View; Córdoba, Spain. p. 23–34.
Riyanto IA, Sholihah RA, Cahyadi A. 2019. Comparative analysis of disaster information website based on web usability evaluation and quality content of disaster information. Paper presented at: ICST 2018. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Science and Technology; Yogyakarta, Indonesia. p. 1–7. doi:10.1051/e3sconf/20197603009.
Salghuna NN, Prasad PC, Kumarib JA. 2018. Assessing the impact of land use and land cover changes on the remnant patches of Kondapalli reserve forest of the Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, India. Egypt J Remote Sens Space Sci. 21(3):419–429. doi:10.1016/j.ejrs.2018.01.005.
Tacconi L. 2003. Fires in Indonesia: causes, costs and policy implications. Bogor: CIFOR. https://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/OccPapers/OP-038.pdf.
[UNISDR] United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. 2017. National disaster risk assessment: governance system, methodologies, and use of results. Geneva: UNISDR. https://www.unisdr.org/files/globalplatform/591f213cf2fbe52828_wordsintoactionguideline.nationaldi.pdf.
[US EPA] United States Environmental Protection Agency. c2020. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency; [accessed 2018 Mar 27]. https://www.epa.gov.
[USDA] United States Department of Agriculture. c2020. Washington, DC: Department of Agriculture; [accessed 2018 Mar 27]. https://www.usda.gov.
[USFS] United States Forest Service. c2020. Washington, DC: United States Forest Service; [accessed 2018 Mar 26]. https://www.fs.usda.gov.
[WALHI] Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia. c2020. Jakarta: Wahana Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia; [accessed 2018 Mar 21]. https://walhi.or.id.
Wibowo KA. 2019. Manajemen penanganan kebakaran hutan dan lahan (Karhutla) guna peningkatan ekonomi kerakyatan. [Management of forest and land fires management (Karhutla) to improve community economy]. Jurnal Studi Sosial dan Politik. 3(1):69–83.
[WRI Indonesia] World Resources Institute Indonesia. c2020. Jakarta: WRI Indonesia; [accessed 2018 Mar 19]. http://www.wri-indonesia.org.
[WRI] World Resources Institute. c2020. Forests: sustaining forests for people and planet. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute; [accessed 2018 Mar 30]. http://www.wri.org/our-work/topics/forests.
WWF Indonesia. c2020. Jakarta: WWF Indonesia; [accessed 2018 Mar 19]. http://www.wwf.id.
WWF Russia. c2020. Moscow: WWF Russia; [accessed 2018 Mar 15]. https://wwf.ru.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s)