Establishing an Ocean Acidification Monitoring System for the Tropical Waters of Indonesia Facing Regional Climate Variability
pdf

Keywords

Biogeochemistry
Carbonate system
Climate change
Monitoring
Ocean acidification

Abstract

The emission of greenhouse gases, including high CO2 and other materials, initiates global warming and climate change. Atmospheric CO2 that affects the carbonate system of seawater causes ocean acidification (OA). OA affects marine organisms directly, as well as humans economically and ecologically. Considering the high impact of OA and following the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals, systematic research and monitoring of OA is necessary in Indonesia, whose seas play an important role in this emerging phenomenon. This review discusses the urgency of OA monitoring systems and suggests carbonate system monitoring, as well as carbon biogeochemistry. OA significantly affects marine production and alters ecosystem services, and it is likely to have an impact on habitats shifting from calcified to non-calcified and reducing benthic complexity. Its effect on calcifying organisms can also be found, i.e., coral calcification and/or dissolution of CaCO3 of calcifying organisms. Acidity (pH), as well as the carbonate system variables of seawater, fluctuate, especially with variations in space and time. Coastal ecosystems that are directly affected by terrestrial input will have carbonate system variables that fluctuate more. The annual rate of decreasing seawater pH, especially over an open and large spatial scale, may indicate OA. Therefore, a monitoring system must be implemented to obtain systematic and comprehensive information on OA. Here, we also introduce a biogeochemical monitoring initiative for OA in Lombok with the established protocols. Improvement of many aspects, including analysis instruments, analysis methods, sample treatment, and sampling frequency will provide new insight into further research and monitoring of OA.

https://doi.org/10.29037/ajstd.638
pdf

References

Alin S, Brainard R, Price N, Newton J, Cohen A, Peterson W, DeCarlo E, Shadwick E, Noakes S, Bednaršek N. 2015. Characterizing the natural system: toward sustained, integrated coastal ocean acidification observing networks to facilitate resource management and decision support. Oceanogr. 25(2):92–107. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.34.

Alsop EB, Boyd ES, Raymond J. 2014. Merging metagenomics and geochemistry reveals environmental controls on biological diversity and evolution. BMC Ecol. 14(1):16. doi:10.1186/1472-6785-14-16.

Andersson AJ, Gledhill D. 2013. Ocean acidification and coral reefs: effects on breakdown, dissolution, and net ecosystem calcification. Ann Rev Mar Sci. 5(1):321–348. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-121211-172241.

Annamalai H, Kida S, Hafner J. 2010. Potential impact of the tropical Indian Ocean-Indonesian seas on El Niño characteristics. J Clim. 23(14):3933–3952. doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3396.1.

Barton A, Hales B, Waldbusser GG, Langdon C, Feelyd RA. 2012. The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, shows negative correlation to naturally elevated carbon dioxide levels: implications for near-term ocean acidification effects. Limnol Oceanogr. 57(3):698–710. doi:10.4319/lo.2012.57.3.0698.

Bates NR, Best MHP, Neely K, Garley R, Dickson AG, Johnson RJ. 2012. Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences. 9(7):2509–2522. doi:10.5194/bg-9-2509-2012.

Branch TA, DeJoseph BM, Ray LJ, Wagner CA. 2013. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine seafood. Trends Ecol Evol. 28(3):178–186. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2012.10.001.

Bresnahan PJ, Martz TR, Takeshita Y, Johnson KS, LaShomb M. 2014. Best practices for autonomous measurement of seawater pH with the Honeywell Durafet. Methods Oceanogr. 9:44–60. doi:10.1016/j.mio.2014.08.003.

Bromhead D, Scholey V, Nicol S, Margulies D, Wexler J, Stein M, Hoyle S, Lennert-Cody C, Williamson J, Havenhand J, Ilyina T, Lehodey P. 2015. The potential impact of ocean acidification upon eggs and larvae of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Deep Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr. 113:268–279. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.03.019.

Cai W, Santoso A, Wang G, Yeh SW, An SI, Cobb KM, Collins M, Guilyardi E, Jin FF, Kug JS, Lengaigne M, Mcphaden MJ, Takahashi K, Timmermann A, Vecchi G, Watanabe M, Wu L. 2015. ENSO and greenhouse warming. Nat Clim Change. 5(9):849–859. doi:10.1038/nclimate2743.

Canadell JG, Le Quéré C, Raupach MR, Field CB, Buitenhuis ET, Ciais P, Conway TJ, Gillett NP, Houghton RA, Marland G. 2007. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 104(47):18866–18870. doi:10.1073/pnas.0702737104.

Cantoni C, Luchetta A, Celio M, Cozzi S, Raicich F, Catalano G. 2012. Carbonate system variability in the Gulf of Trieste (North Adriatic Sea). Estuar Coast Shelf Sci. 115:51–62. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2012.07.006.

Cattano C, Agostini S, Harvey BP, Wada S, Quattrocchi F, Turco G, Inaba K, Hall-Spencer JM, Milazzo M. 2020. Changes in fish communities due to benthic habitat shifts under ocean acidification conditions. Sci Total Environ. 725:138501. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138501.

Chang CP, Wang Z, McBride J, Liu CH. 2005. Annual cycle of Southeast Asia - Maritime continent rainfall and the asymmetric monsoon transition. J Clim. 18(2):287–301. doi:10.1175/JCLI-3257.1.

Cohen AL, McCorkle DC, De Putron S, Gaetani GA, Rose KA. 2009. Morphological and compositional changes in the skeletons of new coral recruits reared in acidified seawater: insights into the biomineralization response to ocean acidification. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. 10(7). doi:10.1029/2009GC002411.

Cole R, Kinder J, Yu W, Ning CL, Wang F, Chao Y. 2019. Ocean climate monitoring. Front Mar Sci. 6(AUG):503. doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00503.

Costanza R, de Groot R, Farberk S, Grasso M, Hannon B, Limburg K, Naeem S, O RV, Paruelo J, Raskin RG, Suttonkk P, van den Belt M. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature. 387(6630):253–260. doi:10.1038/387253a0.

David R, Uyarra MC, Carvalho S, Anlauf H, Borja A, Cahill AE, Carugati L, Danovaro R, De Jode A, Feral JP, Guillemain D, Martire ML, D’Avray LTDV, Pearman JK, Chenuil A. 2019. Lessons from photo analyses of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures as tools to detect (bio-)geographical, spatial, and environmental effects. Mar Pollut Bull. 141:420–429. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.02.066.

DeCarlo TM, Comeau S, Cornwall CE, McCulloch MT. 2018. Coral resistance to ocean acidification linked to increased calcium at the site of calcification. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol]. 285(1878):20180564. doi:10.1098/rspb.2018.0564.

Dickson AG, Sabine CL, Christian JR, editors. 2007. Guide to best practices for ocean CO2 measurements. Sidney: North Pacific Marine Science Organization. https://repository.oceanbestpractices.org/handle/11329/249.

Doney SC, Fabry VJ, Feely RA, Kleypas JA. 2009. Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem. Ann Rev Mar Sci. 1:169–192. doi:10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163834.

Dore JE, Lukas R, Sadler DW, Church MJ, Karl DM. 2009. Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 106(30):12235–12240. doi:10.1073/pnas.0906044106.

dos Reis VM, Karez CS, Mariath R, de Moraes FC, de Carvalho RT, Brasileiro PS, Bahia RdG, Lotufo TMdC, Ramalho LV, de Moura RL, Francini-Filho RB, Pereira-Filho GH, Thompson FL, Bastos AC, Salgado LT, Amado-Filho GM. 2016. Carbonate production by benthic communities on shallow coralgal reefs of Abrolhos Bank, Brazil. PLoS ONE. 11(4):e0154417. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154417.

Ellis JI, Jamil T, Anlauf H, Coker DJ, Curdia J, Hewitt J, Jones BH, Krokos G, Kürten B, Hariprasad D, Roth F, Carvalho S, Hoteit I. 2019. Multiple stressor effects on coral reef ecosystems. Glob Change Biol. 25(12):4131–4146. doi:10.1111/gcb.14819.

Esbaugh AJ. 2018. Physiological implications of ocean acidification for marine fish: emerging patterns and new insights. J Comp Physiol B, Biochem Syst Environ Physiol. 188(1):1–13. doi:10.1007/s00360-017-1105-6.

Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Dahe Q, Mach KJ, Plattner GK, Mastrandrea MD, Tignor M, Ebi KL. 2011. IPCC workshop on impacts of ocean acidification on marine biology and ecosystems. Workshop report. Geneva: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Friedrich T, Timmermann A, Abe-Ouchi A, Bates NR, Chikamoto MO, Church MJ, Dore JE, Gledhill DK, González-Dávila M, Heinemann M, Ilyina T, Jungclaus JH, McLeod E, Mouchet A, Santana-Casiano JM. 2012. Detecting regional anthropogenic trends in ocean acidification against natural variability. Nature Clim Change. 2(3):167–171. doi:10.1038/nclimate1372.

Frommel AY, Stiebens V, Clemmesen C, Havenhand J. 2010. Effect of ocean acidification on marine fish sperm (Baltic cod: Gadus morhua). Biogeosciences. 7(12):3915–3919. doi:10.5194/bg-7-3915-2010.

Gattuso JP, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Pörtner HO, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2015. Coral reefs. In: Climate change 2014 – impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: part A: global and sectoral aspects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 97–166. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415379.005.

Gazeau F, Parker LM, Comeau S, Gattuso JP, O’Connor WA, Martin S, Pörtner HO, Ross PM. 2013. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine shelled molluscs. Mar Biol. 160(8):2207–2245. doi:10.1007/s00227-013-2219-3.

Gledhill D, White M, Salisbury J, Thomas H, Misna I, Liebman M, Mook B, Grear J, Candelmo A, Chambers RC, Gobler C, Hunt C, King A, Price N, Signorini S, Stancioff E, Stymiest C, Wahle R, Waller J, Rebuck N, Wang Z, Capson T, Morrison JR, Cooley S, Doney S. 2015. Ocean and coastal acidification off New England and Nova Scotia. Oceanogr. 25(2):182–197. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.41.

González-Dávila M, Santana-Casiano JM, Rueda MJ, Llinás O. 2010. The water column distribution of carbonate system variables at the ESTOC site from 1995 to 2004. Biogeosciences. 7(10):3067–3081. doi:10.5194/bg-7-3067-2010.

Grasshoff K, Kremling K, Ehrhardt M, editors. 1999. Methods of seawater analysis. Weinheim: John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/9783527613984.

Gustafsson E, Omstedt A, Gustafsson BG. 2015. The air-water CO2 exchange of a coastal sea - a sensitivity study on factors that influence the absorption and outgassing of CO2 in the Baltic Sea. J Geophys Res Oceans. 120(8):5342–5357. doi:10.1002/2015JC010832.

Harborne AR, Rogers A, Bozec YM, Mumby PJ. 2017. Multiple stressors and the functioning of coral reefs. Ann Rev Mar Sci. 9(1):445–468. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060551.

Hofmann GE, Barry JP, Edmunds PJ, Gates RD, Hutchins DA, Klinger T, Sewell MA. 2010. The effect of ocean acidification on calcifying organisms in marine ecosystems: an organism-to-ecosystem perspective. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst. 41(1):127–147. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.110308.120227.

Hofmann GE, Smith JE, Johnson KS, Send U, Levin LA, Micheli F, Paytan A, Price NN, Peterson B, Takeshita Y, Matson PG, Crook ED, Kroeker KJ, Gambi MC, Rivest EB, Frieder CA, Yu PC, Martz TR. 2011. High-frequency dynamics of ocean pH: a multi-ecosystem comparison. PLoS ONE. 6(12):e28983. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028983.

Huang WJ, Kao KJ, Liu LL, Liao CW, Han YL. 2018. An assessment of direct dissolved inorganic carbon injection to the coastal region: a model result. Sustainability. 10(4):1174. doi:10.3390/su10041174.

Humanes A, Noonan SHC, Willis BL, Fabricius KE, Negri AP. 2016. Cumulative effects of nutrient enrichment and elevated temperature compromise the early life history stages of the coral Acropora tenuis. PLoS ONE. 11(8):e0161616. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161616.

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. 2018. Update on IOC custodianship role in relation to SDG 14 indicators. Paris: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. http://legacy.ioc-unesco.org/index.php?option=com_oe&task=viewDocumentRecord&docID=21938.

Jiang LQ, Cai WJ, Wanninkhof R, Wang Y, Lüger H. 2008. Air-sea CO2 fluxes on the U.S. South Atlantic Bight: spatial and seasonal variability. J Geophys Res Oceans. 113(7). doi:10.1029/2007JC004366.

Karl D. 2010. Oceanic ecosystem time-series programs: ten lessons learned. Oceanogr. 23(3):104–125. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2010.27.

Kelly MW, Hofmann GE. 2013. Adaptation and the physiology of ocean acidification. Funct Ecol. 27(4):980–990. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2435.2012.02061.x.

Koch M, Bowes G, Ross C, Zhang XH. 2013. Climate change and ocean acidification effects on seagrasses and marine macroalgae. Glob Change Biol. 19(1):103–132. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02791.x.

Koch-Larrouy A, Lengaigne M, Terray P, Madec G, Masson S. 2010. Tidal mixing in the Indonesian seas and its effect on the tropical climate system. Clim Dyn. 34(6):891–904. doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0642-4.

Lam VW, Chavanich S, Djoundourian S, Dupont S, Gaill F, Holzer G, Isensee K, Katua S, Mars F, Metian M, Hall-Spencer JM. 2019. Dealing with the effects of ocean acidification on coral reefs in the Indian Ocean and Asia. Reg Stud Mar Sci. 28:100560. doi:10.1016/j.rsma.2019.100560.

Lannig G, Eilers S, Pörtner HO, Sokolova IM, Bock C. 2010. Impact of ocean acidification on energy metabolism of oyster, Crassostrea gigas - changes in metabolic pathways and thermal response. Mar Drugs. 8(8):2318–2339. doi:10.3390/md8082318.

Lefèvre N, Taylor A. 2002. Estimating pCO2 from sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic gyres. Deep Sea Res Part I Oceanogr Res Pap. 49(3):539–554. doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(01 ) 00064-4.

Liu X, Patsavas MC, Byrne RH. 2011. Purification and characterization of meta-cresol purple for spectrophotometric seawater pH measurements. Environ Sci Technol. 45(11):4862–4868. doi:10.1021/es200665d.

Lorenzoni L, Benway H, editors. 2013. Global intercomparability in a changing ocean: an international time-series methods workshop. Bermuda: Ocean Carbon & Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program and International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP). doi:10.25607/OBP-12.

Lu Z, Gan J, Dai M. 2012. Modeling seasonal and diurnal pCO2 variations in the northern South China Sea. J Mar Syst. 92(1):30–41. doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2011.10.003.

McLaughlin K, Weisberg S, Dickson A, Hofmann G, Newton J, Aseltine-Neilson D, Barton A, Cudd S, Feely R, Jefferds I, Jewett E, King T, Langdon C, McAfee S, Pleschner-Steele D, Steele B. 2015. Core principles of the California current acidification network: linking chemistry, physics, and ecological effects. Oceanogr. 25(2):160–169. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.39.

Millero FJ. 1986. The pH of estuarine waters. Limnol Oceanogr. 31(4):839–847. doi:10.4319/lo.1986.31.4.0839.

Mollica NR, Guo W, Cohen AL, Huang KF, Foster GL, Donald HK, Solow AR. 2018. Ocean acidification affects coral growth by reducing skeletal density. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 115(8):1754–1759. doi:10.1073/pnas.1712806115.

Mosley LM, Husheer SL, Hunter KA. 2004. Spectrophotometric pH measurement in estuaries using thymol blue and m-cresol purple. Mar Chem. 91(1-4):175–186. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2004.06.008.

Mucci A, Lansard B, Miller LA, Papakyriakou TN. 2010. CO2 fluxes across the air-sea interface in the southeastern Beaufort Sea: ice-free period. J Geophys Res Oceans. 115(4). doi:10.1029/2009JC005330.

Needham S, Funge-Smith S. 2015. The consumption of fish and fish products in the Asia-Pacific region based on household surveys. Bangkok: FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. http://www.fao.org/publications/card/en/c/ba100e66-4b37-4a1b-ba2b-364e6a3205bc/.

Newton JA, Feely RA, Jewett EB, Williamson P, Mathis J. 2015. Global ocean acidification observing network: requirements and governance plan. Vienna: Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre.

O’Donnell MJ, George MN, Carrington E. 2013. Mussel byssus attachment weakened by ocean acidification. Nature Clim Change. 3(6):587–590. doi:10.1038/nclimate1846.

Omar AM, Thomas H, Olsen A, Becker M, Skjelvan I, Reverdin G. 2019. Trends of ocean acidification and pCO2 in the Northern North Sea, 2003–2015. J Geo phys Res Biogeosci. 124(10):3088–3103. doi:10.1029/2018JG004992.

Orr JC, Epitalon JM, Gattuso JP. 2015. Comparison of ten packages that compute ocean carbonate chemistry. Biogeosciences. 12(5):1483–1510. doi:10.5194/bg-12-1483-2015.

Park GH, Wanninkhof R, Doney SC, Takahashi T, Lee K, Feely RA, Sabine CL, Tri?lanes J, Lima ID. 2010. Variability of global net sea-air CO2 fluxes over the last three decades using empirical relationships. Tellus B Chem Phys Meteorol. 62(5):352–368. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00498.x.

Pearman JK, Aylagas E, Voolstra CR, Anlauf H, Villalobos R, Carvalho S. 2019. Disentangling the complex microbial community of coral reefs using standardized Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS). Mol Ecol. 28(15):3496–3507. doi:10.1111/mec.15167.

Pierrot D, Neill C, Sullivan K, Castle R, Wanninkhof R, Lüger H, Johannessen T, Olsen A, Feely RA, Cosca CE. 2009. Recommendations for autonomous underway pCO2 measuring systems and data-reduction routines. Deep Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr. 56(8-10):512–522. doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.12.005.

Pimenta AR, Grear JS. 2018. Guidelines for measuring changes in seawater pH and associated carbonate chemistry in coastal environments of the eastern United States. Washington, DC: U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development. https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P100UDMR.txt.

Price NN, Martz TR, Brainard RE, Smith JE. 2012. Diel variability in seawater pH relates to calcification and benthic community structure on coral reefs. PLoS ONE. 7(8):e43843. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043843.

Ransome E, Geller JB, Timmers M, Leray M, Mahardini A, Sembiring A, Collins AG, Meyer CP. 2017. The importance of standardization for biodiversity comparisons: a case study using autonomous reef monitoring structures (ARMS) and metabarcoding to measure cryptic diversity on Mo’orea coral reefs, French Polynesia. PLoS ONE. 12(4):e0175066. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0175066.

Rérolle VM, Floquet CF, Mowlem MC, Connelly DP, Achterberg EP, Bellerby RR. 2012. Seawater-pH measurements for ocean-acidification observations. Trends Analyt Chem. 40:146–157. doi:10.1016/j.trac.2012.07.016.

Richmond RH, Tisthammer KH, Spies NP. 2018. The effects of anthropogenic stressors on reproduction and recruitment of corals and reef organisms. Front Mar Sci. 5(JUL):226. doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00226.

Riebesell U, Fabry V, Hansson L, Gattuso JP. 2011. Guide to best practices for ocean acidification research and data reporting. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. doi:10.2777/66906.

Ríos AF, Resplandy L, García-Ibáñez MI, Fajar NM, Velo A, Padin XA, Wanninkhof R, Steinfeldt R, Rosón G, Pérez FF, Morel FM. 2015. Decadal acidification in the water masses of the Atlantic Ocean. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 112(32):9950–9955. doi:10.1073/pnas.1504613112.

Robertson AW, Moron V, Qian JH, Chang CP, Tangang F, Aldrian E, Koh TY, Liew J. 2011. The maritime continent monsoon. In: The global monsoon system: research and forecast. 2nd edition. Singapore: World Scientific. p. 85–98. doi:10.1142/9789814343411_0006.

Rodolfo-Metalpa R, Houlbrèque F, Tambutté É, Boisson F, Baggini C, Patti FP, Jeffree R, Fine M, Foggo A, Gattuso JP, Hall-Spencer JM. 2011. Coral and mollusc resistance to ocean acidification adversely affected by warming. Nature Clim Change. 1(6):308–312. doi:10.1038/nclimate1200.

Sprintall J, Gordon AL, Wijffels SE, Feng M, Hu S, Koch-Larrouy A, Phillips H, Nugroho D, Napitu A, Pujiana K, Dwi Susanto R, Sloyan B, Yuan D, Riama NF, Siswanto S, Kuswardani A, Arifin Z, Wahyudi AJ, Zhou H, Nagai T, Ansong JK, Bourdalle-Badié R, Chanut J, Lyard F, Arbic BK, Ramdhani A, Setiawan A. 2019. Detecting change in the Indonesian seas. Front Mar Sci. 6(JUN):257. doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00257.

Sprintall J, Révelard A. 2014. The Indonesian Throughflow response to Indo-Pacific climate variability. J Geophys Res Oceans. 119(2):1161–1175. doi:10.1002/2013JC009533.

Sunday JM, Fabricius KE, Kroeker KJ, Anderson KM, Brown NE, Barry JP, Connell SD, Dupont S, Gaylord B, Hall-Spencer JM, Klinger T, Milazzo M, Munday PL, Russell BD, Sanford E, Thiyagarajan V, Vaughan ML, Widdicombe S, Harley CD. 2017. Ocean acidification can mediate biodiversity shifts by changing biogenic habitat. Nature Clim Change. 7(1):81–85. doi:10.1038/nclimate3161.

Sutton AJ, Sabine CL, Maenner-Jones S, Lawrence-Slavas N, Meinig C, Feely RA, Mathis JT, Musielewicz S, Bott R, McLain PD, Fought HJ, Kozyr A. 2014. A high-frequency atmospheric and seawater pCO2 data set from 14 open-ocean sites using a moored autonomous system. Earth Syst Sci Data. 6(2):353–366. doi:10.5194/essd-6-353-2014.

Takahashi T, Sutherland SC, Chipman DW, Goddard JG, Ho C. 2014. Climatological distributions of pH, pCO2, total CO2, alkalinity, and CaCO3 saturation in the global surface ocean, and temporal changes at selected locations. Mar Chem. 164:95–125. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2014.06.004.

Tilbrook B, Jewett EB, DeGrandpre MD, Hernandez-Ayon JM, Feely RA, Gledhill DK, Hansson L, Isensee K, Kurz ML, Newton JA, Siedlecki SA, Chai F, Dupont S, Graco M, Calvo E, Greeley D, Kapsenberg L, Lebrec M, Pelejero C, Schoo KL, Telszewski M. 2019. An enhanced ocean acidification observing network: from people to Technology to Data Synthesis and Information Exchange. Front Mar Sci. 6:337. doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00337.

Turley C, Findlay HS. 2016. Ocean acidification. In: Climate change: observed impacts on planet earth. 2nd edition. Boston: Elsevier. p. 271–293. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-63524-2.00018-X.

Unsworth RK, Nordlund LM, Cullen-Unsworth LC. 2019. Seagrass meadows support global fisheries production. Conserv Lett. 12(1):e12566. doi:10.1111/conl.12566.

Vargas-Ángel B, Richards CL, Vroom PS, Price NN, Schils T, Young CW, Smith J, Johnson MD, Brainard RE. 2015. Baseline assessment of net calcium carbonate accretion rates on U.S. Pacific reefs. PLoS ONE. 10(12):e0142196. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0142196.

Viyakarn V, Lalitpattarakit W, Chinfak N, Jandang S, Kuanui P, Khokiattiwong S, Chavanich S. 2015. Effect of lower pH on settlement and development of coral, Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758). Ocean Sci J. 50(2):475–480. doi:10.1007/s12601-015-0043-z.

Wallace RB, Baumann H, Grear JS, Aller RC, Gobler CJ. 2014. Coastal ocean acidification: the other eutrophication problem. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci. 148:1–13. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2014.05.027.

Whitfield M, Butler RA, Covington AK. 1985. The determination of ph in estuarine waters. 1. Definition of ph scales and the selection of buffers. Oceanol Acta. 8(4):423–432.

Woolf DK, Land PE, Shutler JD, Goddijn-Murphy LM, Donlon CJ. 2016. On the calculation of air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the presence of temperature and salinity gradients. J Geophys Res Oceans. 121(2):1229–1248. doi:10.1002/2015JC011427.

Yamamoto-Kawai M, McLaughlin FA, Carmack EC, Nishino S, Shimada K. 2009. Aragonite undersaturation in the Arctic Ocean: effects of ocean acidification and sea ice melt. Science. 326(5956):1098–1100. doi:10.1126/science.1174190.

Yamanaka MD, Ogino SY, Wu PM, Jun-Ichi H, Mori S, Matsumoto J, Syamsudin F. 2018. Maritime continent coastlines controlling Earth’s climate. Prog Earth Planet Sci. 5(1):1–28. doi:10.1186/s40645-018-0174-9.

Yu W, Hood R, Adamo ND, Mcphaden M, Adi R, Tisiana R, Kuswardani D, Feng M, Ivey G, Lee T, Meyers G, Ueki I, Landry M, Ji R, Davis C, Pranowo W, Beckley L, Masumoto Y. 2016. Eastern Indian Ocean Upwelling Research Initiative (EIOURI): the EIOURI science plan. Hyderabad: ESSO - Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS). https://www.oceandocs.org/handle/1834/9673.

Zeebe RE, Wolf-Gladrow DA. 2001. CO2 in seawater: equilibrium, kinetics, isotopes. 1st edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Zhai W, Dai M, Cai WJ, Wang Y, Hong H. 2005. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide and air-sea fluxes in the northern South China Sea in spring, summer and autumn. Mar Chem. 96(1-2):87–97. doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2004.12.002.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2020 The Author(s)

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.