ASEAN Journal on Science and Technology for Development 2021-04-30T00:00:00+07:00 Widodo Open Journal Systems <h2>About the <em>ASEAN Journal on Science &amp; Technology for Development</em></h2> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">Jointly published by the ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology and the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia, the <em>ASEAN Journal on Science &amp; Technology for Development</em> (print ISSN 0217-5460; online ISSN 2224-9028) is a peer-reviewed open access journal focusing on the publication of articles that make positive, tangible contributions to science and technology in the ASEAN region. Its main aim is to promote and Google Scholar, ID Scopus, ResearchGate, Orcid), accelerate the discovery and ultimate ASEAN-wide application of scientific and technological innovations, the consequence of which should be greater prosperity for the people of Southeast Asia.</p> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">AJSTD covers a wide range of technology-related subjects in the context of ASEAN, including biotechnology, non-conventional energy research, materials science and technology, marine sciences, meteorology and geophysics, food science and technology, microelectronics and information technology, space applications, science and technology policy, and infrastructure and resources development.</p> <h2>About The ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology</h2> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">The ASEAN Committee on Science and Technology was established to strengthen and enhance the capability of ASEAN in science and technology so that it can promote economic development and help achieve a high quality of life for its people. Its terms and reference are:</p> <ul class="asean-terms" style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;"> <li class="show">To generate and promote development of scientific and technological expertise and manpower in the ASEAN region;</li> <li class="show">To facilite and accelerate the transfer of scientific and technological development among ASEAN countries and from more advanced regions of the world to the ASEAN region;</li> <li class="show">To provide support and assistance in the development and application of research discoveries and technological practices of endogenous origin for the common good, and in the more effective use of natural resources available in the ASEAN region and in general; and</li> <li class="show">To provide scientific and technological support towards the implementation of existing and future ASEAN projects.</li> </ul> <p style="font-weight: 300; font-size: 1.01rem;">Further information about the activities of ASEAN COST can be <a class="border-hover" href=";view=categories&amp;id=8&amp;Itemid=130" target="_blank" rel="noopener">found on its website</a>.</p> Spurring Economic Growth in Terms of Happiness, Human Development, Competitiveness and Global Innovation: the ASEAN Case 2020-10-26T15:32:36+07:00 Saida Zainurossalamia ZA Siti Amalia Dio Caisar Darma Musdalifah Azis <p>Happiness, human development, level of competitiveness, and capacity in innovation all play an important role in spurring long-term sustainable economic growth. This study presents the relationship between these factors—happiness, human development, competitiveness, and innovation in the ASEAN region—in how they influence economic growth. To date, there has been a lack of research on this specific issue, and thus it is an interesting and little-known one to study. Panel data were used comprising a combination of time series and cross-sections. The object of the study was ASEAN member countries using the multiple linear regression method. For the years of 2013–2019, we found that overall economic growth had a real impact. The results showed that human development and global innovation are two-way related to economic growth (positive and significant). Conversely, there was an insignificant influence of happiness and competitiveness on economic growth. Competitiveness, in particular, can reduce the level of economic growth. The policy considerations pursued by countries in ASEAN are through the respective governments’ strategic steps to improve the productivity of their populations, because human resources are needed not only as objects but actors in economic activities themselves in managing development.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s) Investigation of the Distribution of the Daytime Employed Population of Yangon, Myanmar, with and without the Impact of Work from Home 2020-10-30T11:07:21+07:00 Ye Wint Aung San San Myint <p>Work from home (WFH) has gradually become more popular since COVID-19 started its transmission in Myanmar during the first quarter of 2020. Its consequence was a re-evaluation of the culture of workplaces and a significant change has occurred to the pattern of daytime employment distribution. In this paper, the network distribution model was built with three constraints, Distribution Bias 1, 2, and 3. These biases were determined through questionnaires, survey data collections of responses from Yangonites, and geographical data of urban employment cores. These percentile biases influenced the amount of employed population per distribution times and gave rise to two results. One was the ordinary daytime employed population and another was the improved daytime employed distribution (considering WFH). These two results were compared and contrasted with coefficient of variations, t-tests, and other correlation methods to determine the effect of WFH on the daytime employed population. With survey data, it was clarified that majorities in Yangon do favor work from home as an alternative option for future employment. Subsequently, the compared results revealed that work from home significantly decreased the amount of employment distribution and the amount of such decrements were more consistent and had less variations, hence reducing cramming during daytime distribution.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s) HEC-HMS Model for Urban Flood Analysis in Belik River, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 2020-09-29T05:33:49+07:00 Slamet Suprayogi Rifai Reviana Latifah <p>The rapid development of Yogyakarta has made city development increase. This construction continues to expand the reach of impervious surfaces. As a result, surface runoff and maximum discharge have increased, overflowing up to urban drainage. This study aimed to analyze the maximum discharge of the watershed based on design storms with 2, 5, 10, and 25-year return periods, used for flood control considerations. The urban flood was modelled using HEC-HMS. The results showed that the contribution of discharge flow in each segment is influenced by the dominance of land use, in which the segment dominated by dense settlements has a high contribution to the maximum discharge. The flow contribution is due to the high curve number value, which corresponds to the high surface runoff. The peak discharge of watersheds with return periods of 2, 5, 10, and 25 years are 8 m<sup>3</sup>/s, 20.1 m<sup>3</sup>/s, 29.9 m<sup>3</sup>/s, and 44.1 m<sup>3</sup>/s, respectively.</p> 2021-08-04T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s) Optimum Medium for Lipase Production by Lipolytic Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Kendari Landfill Soil 2021-03-10T17:03:33+07:00 Nur Rayani Miftahul Ilmi <p>Lipase produced by Aspergillus is widely known and used in many industrial sectors. In a previous study, three lipolytic filamentous fungi were isolated from Kendari (Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia) landfill soil and identified as <em>Aspergillus niger</em> KE1, <em>Aspergillus terreus</em> KC1, and <em>Aspergillus fumigatus</em> KE6. However, the optimization of these isolates has not been reported. In this study, statistical optimization was selected because it is more effective, efficient, economical, and robust in achieving results, and the possibility of analyzing the interaction effects among factors. Three lipolytic isolates were screened in the initial medium to obtain the highest lipolytic isolate, which was used in the medium optimization process. Optimization was performed using the series experimental design of Taguchi and RSM. Optimization successfully obtained the optimum medium with the reduction of the medium component from the previously reported medium. <em>Aspergillus niger</em> KE1 was the selected isolate with the highest lipase productivity after 72 h in the initial medium. The significant factors affecting lipase production were peptone, olive oil, glucose, and MgSO<sub>4</sub> .7H<sub>2</sub>O. The model equation obtained was Y = 1043 ? 228 A + 300 B ? 19803 C + 99 A*A + 5720 B*B + 292855 C*C ? 979 A*B + 6563 A*C ? 56338 B*C. This model successfully predicted the lipase productivity with an R2 of 96.9%. The optimized medium was composed of 2% peptone, 0.1% olive oil, 0.5% glucose, and 0.075% MgSO<sub>4</sub> .7H<sub>2</sub>O. Using the medium, lipase productivity increases 4.7-fold. Our results suggest that <em>A. niger</em> KE1 is a potential lipase source which catalyses the esterification reaction. Further research is needed to purify and characterize the lipase enzyme of this isolate.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s) Seismic Safety Assessment of Existing Low-rise RC Buildings with Rapid Visual Screenings and Preliminary Evaluation Methods 2021-04-07T15:26:26+07:00 Moe Myat Myat Aung Mya Nan Aye <p>Mandalay, the second largest city in Myanmar, is situated near the Sagaing Fault (the major fault in Myanmar). In the Mandalay region, the number of low-rise buildings is much greater than that of high-rise buildings. As such, seismic safety assessments of low-rise buildings play an important role in developing Mandalay as a smart city. In this study, the rapid visual screening (RVS) and preliminary evaluation for 26 numbers of three- to eight-story RC buildings were investigated with three different RVS and preliminary evaluation methods. Based on the RVS methods, the FEMA P154 Level 1 and 2 results gave the highest risk. With the Bangladesh method, the higher the story, the more vulnerable the building. Meanwhile, the Indian method showed a medium risk status. According to the preliminary evaluation, the assessed buildings need a detailed seismic evaluation, except for one building in the Indian method. Similarly, all buildings need a detailed evaluation in the Bangladesh method. The most convenient RVS and preliminary evaluation can be derived from these results for buildings in Mandalay, Myanmar. Moreover, a method can be developed for seismic safety assessments in other ASEAN countries with subsequent research.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s) Anticipating Ocean Deoxygenation in the Maritime Continent of Southeast Asia 2020-07-09T10:04:23+07:00 Ita Wulandari A'an J. Wahyudi Karlina Triana <p>Oxygen plays an essential role in the biogeochemical process and ocean productivity, especially during the recent trend of climate change. Development of the oxygen loss condition, deoxygenation, receives less attention than ocean acidification and warming. Therefore, understanding deoxygenation is indispensable. The maritime continent waters of Southeast Asia (SEA) are well-known for marine biodiversity and unique geological features. The area is inevitably impacted by climate change and will suffer more due to less oxygen in seawater. Based on previous research, Bengal Bay has been affected by oxygen depletion and climate change, in which hypoxic rate conditions continuously increase. In the other SEA area, seasonal hypoxia occurs in coastal areas as an impact of eutrophication. This occurs in Sangga Besar River Estuary, Bolinao and Anda coastal waters, Manila Bay, Jakarta Bay, and Cambodian waters. Deoxygenation anticipation is an essential step as a response to the development of oxygen loss areas, and monitoring is proposed as a preliminary step before the oxygen loss worsens. This review focuses on observing oxygen depletion changes and hypoxia in the maritime continent area, including its potency, effect, and recommendations on how to monitor deoxygenation.</p> 2021-04-30T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Author(s)